Spain under Franco, 1939-56

tobysatch
Mind Map by tobysatch, updated more than 1 year ago
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Mind Map on Spain under Franco, 1939-56, created by tobysatch on 05/09/2015.

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Spain under Franco, 1939-56
  1. Establishing Control
    1. Overall; he would no longer need the support of the Falange or the monarchy, propaganda represented Franco as the saviour of Spain.
      1. The Carlists (a right wing party created in 1833, they were against the modernisation of the country and the economy) were little threat to Franco as he joined the Carlists and the Falange together, consequently most of the Carlists joined the falange and the Fascism idea.
        1. Franco capitalised on their support by giving them important roles in the economy and the management of the media, This strengthened Franco's power in 2 ways; the loyalty of the Falange and denied access to the monarchists to disrupting propaganda.
          1. Although the Falange (a political party founded by Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera in 1933 during the Second Spanish Republic) did not support the monarchy but lent there support to Franco. As they thought that he would bring back the fascist state that they desired.
            1. However Franco said that due to the effects of the Civil War and the outbreak of WW2 meant it was to have an experienced military leader in charge.
              1. In 1947 he passed a new law called the Leadership Succession which declared Spain as a monarchy, however it didn't state who the king would be.
                1. Franco stated that he would form the monarchy 'at a right time', he contacted Don Juan (Spanish king who was exiled) and said he would be king in due course.
                  1. One of the biggest threat to Franco was the monarchy. There was widespread support for the restoration of the monarchy as a way to unite Spain after the war.
    2. The Church
      1. More over the church supported the idea of Franco's conservative of that men would govern families, marriages and the poor and rich would come together on a Sunday to pray.
        1. The Clerical Law gave independance to the church, Franco could do this as he knew that they supported him due to the fact that Franco was against atheists and Marxists, therefore the church kept silent about the violence committed by Franco.
          1. There was an unofficial alliance with Franco and the Catholic Church due to the fact that the Republicans prosecuted the Church during the Civil War. This alliance was created by the 1938 Clerical Law which gave the church an important role in the State. This law gave a monopoly to the church over education and allowing them to create youth groups and finally it outlined that other religions were outlawed.
      2. Censorship and propaganda
        1. The strict control of the press began during the Spanish Civil War, the Press Law of 1938 meant that government authorisation was required to publice anything and it also gave the power to shut down any publication. Finally it gave them the right to appoint the editors of Spain's 45 newspapers.
          1. From 1942, the propaganda department created small films celebrating Franco's achievements and reminding the horrors of the Red Terror.
          2. Economic Policies
            1. Corporatism
              1. Result: Franco's economic policies were a SUCCESS in terms of pleasing the Falange and preventing challengers, but for the economy it was a DISASTER. Corporatism failed to inspire economic innovation and this policy led to the decline of standard of living for workers as fixed wages couldn't keep up with increasing price. In the 1940s wages +30% compared to almost +600% increase in price./
                1. Corporatism benifited Franco in 2 ways; It helped to control the working class as it replaced independent trade unions and therefore it stopped workers, ALSO it won the loyalty of the Falange as they believed it was a step closer to Fascism
                  1. Is a policy that advocated by the Fascists as a middle way between capitalism ( favoured big business) and communism (supported the workers and they hoped that it would balance both.
              2. Autarky
                1. 3RD; Autarky meant that Spain would never benefit from foreign investment or trade and during the 1940s international trade played a crucial role in bringing about economic growth, however Spain missed out on these benefits.
                  1. 2ND; Some goods that were not imported and could not be synthesised e.g. fertilisers. Without this, food production declined; in the 1940s Spain produced only a 1/4 of the amount of cereal each year that had been produced in the 1935. As a result 200,000 people died from malnutrition and the year was known as 'THE YEAR OF HUNGER'
                    1. AUTARKY CREATED PROBLEMS: 1st; Spain made synthetics substitutes for materials it did not possess e.g. replacing cotton with synthetic fibres. The synthetic was low quality, but expensive to make, it would been cheaper and more efficient to import these materials. In many ways Autarky wasted resources.
                      1. This was also a popular policy with the Falange, Franco believed that this policy would grow Spain and make everything that the people wanted, economic control were created so that it was impossible to import or export goods. With this policy Spain owed 5% of its GDP to trade.
                  2. Overall; the Spanish economy also suffered as a result of Franco's commitment to the military, between 1939-1945 around 50% of governments spending was devoted to the military. This led to a drop in agriculture and industry.
                2. Terror
                  1. This Law operated within a new military framework which placed the police and the Falange under military control. The police were tasked with arresting suspects then they would hand over the suspects to a military court, these courts had a wide range of power to using the DEATH sentence or to prison.
                    1. Very little evidence was needed and 500,000 were convicted by 1945 and 200,000 were executed
                      1. Franco had no desire to make peace with those who who were against him during the war, rather he wanted to 'purificate' society, so in February 1939 he created a law called the Law of Political Responsibilities, this meant that any political activities going back to 1934, this meant that any old scores from the civil war were sorted out.
                    2. This law targeted those who were 'Un-Spanish', and it affected urban workers, peasants, people who campaigned for regional rights, liberated women and middle-class supporters of the Republic
                    3. The new state was born from the Spanish Civil War and it maintained a war like character for some afterwards. The war's legacy was evident in Franco's two main domestic aims; to establish control and to root out opposition by the use of terror.
                      1. The Second World War
                        1. On 23rd October 1940 Franco met with Hitler as they made an alliance with each other during the Civil War, by this time Hitler had conquered France and only Britain was standing
                          1. Franco said that he would join Germany and Italy if he gained French territory in Morocco, however Hitler was unwilling as Italy too wanted it and Italy did help with conquering France with Germany. This agreement failed and Spain stayed neutral.
                            1. In the early part of the war Franco sent 18,000 volunteers (Blue Division) to fight alongside Germany from 1942. As well he sent raw materials, sent workers to the German factories and allowed U-Boats to refuel in Spanish harbours.
                              1. Franco was very aware of the western allies and therefore to avoid anger he sent Spanish volunteers to fight against Russia on the Eastern front rather then sending them to the western side to fight against the British. He thought that him contributing would win Hitler's side then the British wrath.
                                1. By 1943 Franco was convinced that Germany would lose the war due to the fact that America had entered the war, therefore Franco brought back his Spanish volunteers to distance himself from Germany.
                                  1. In the short run, neutrality for Spain was beneficial for Franco, however it led to him to a difficult position as the two most powerful groups within the government disagreed with each other. The monarchists stated that Spain should side with Britain as they had strong links with the British monarchy. On the other hand, the Falange with their fellow fascists in Germany and Italy. By remaining neutral Franco was able to keep the peace between the two fanctions
                        2. Foreign Policy after 1945
                          1. In 1914, Spain negotiated a $25 million loan from the USA, the first in a series of loans coasting a total of $65 million, in return Franco allowed USA troops to establish bases in its territory
                            1. Spain's position improved further during the early 1950s; In 1953 Franco signed the Treaty of Madrid- granting the USA the right to set up military bases on its soil, by 1959 there were 4 bases in Spain.
                              1. In 1953 Franco also negotiated a CONCORDAT with the Vatican - showed that Franco's government approved of the Pope. Under the terms Franco was able to appoint bishops in Spain.
                                1. Finally, in 1955 Spain joined the UN, this paved the way for further international collaboration during the 1960s.
                          2. Social Policy, 1939-56
                            1. Women's freedom was significantly diminished, 1938 Franco introduced the 1889 Civil Code - this made women legally dependent on their fathers or husbands. He also re-introduced parts of the 1870 Criminal Code - which meant women could be punished for extra-martial arts. Additionally all single women aged 18-35 had to undertake six months of voluntary service as part of the Falange's Seccion Femenina, this was designed to train the women to dedicate herself as a Catholic Mother.
                              1. With the teaching of the Church, the new state actively persecuted Lesbian, gays and Bi's. Homosexuality was outlawed by 1954, before they were convicted & persecuted and were sent to 'galerias de invertidos which was supposed to 'cure' them.
                                1. The government also used propaganda to stress the importance of families, films were also created showing heroes and heroines who were committed to their families. The use of censorship to re-edit foreign films to take out extra-martial affairs.
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