California

Beth Hopkins
Mind Map by Beth Hopkins, updated more than 1 year ago
Beth Hopkins
Created by Beth Hopkins over 6 years ago
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Description

Mind Map on California, created by Beth Hopkins on 05/09/2015.

Resource summary

California
  1. Frequency
    1. Hydrometerological
      1. Increasing
        1. Climate change
      2. Geophysical
        1. Consistent
      3. Hotspot
        1. Definition
          1. A location where one or more geophysical and/or hydrometerological hazard frequently occurs
          2. Physical Factors
            1. Hydrometerological
              1. Drought
                1. Wildfires
                  1. Examples
                    1. Cedar
                      1. Human related
                        1. Oct 2003
                        2. Impacts
                          1. 15 people died
                            1. 2820 buildings were damaged or destroyed
                              1. 273246 acres of forest were destroyed
                              2. San Diego
                            2. Causes
                              1. Dry Santa Ana winds and drought
                            3. Examples
                              1. 2011
                                1. Still continuing
                                  1. Impacts
                                    1. Damage to the farming industry
                                      1. Damage to biodiversity
                                        1. Economy has been badly affected
                                          1. State wide sprinkle and hosepipe laws
                                            1. Depleted lakes, groundwater and aquifers
                                            2. San Joaquin Valley
                                              1. San Joaquin and Sacramento rivers
                                                1. Delta
                                          2. Causes
                                            1. The dry Santa Ana winds, originating in the Mojave desert descending from mountains further inland to coastal areas and lack of rainfall increase drought risk. Also increased water demand increases water shortages
                                              1. Global climate change could play a role in decreased rainfall
                                          3. Flooding
                                            1. Coastal
                                              1. Causes
                                                1. Sea level rise
                                                  1. Global warming
                                                  2. Winter storms
                                                    1. Storm surges and increased rainfall
                                                      1. Global warming
                                                    2. El Nino
                                                    3. Examples
                                                      1. L.A. Flood 1938
                                                    4. River
                                                      1. Causes
                                                        1. El Nino
                                                          1. Increased rainfall
                                                            1. Winter storms
                                                            2. Examples
                                                              1. L.A. Flood 1938
                                                                1. Impacts
                                                                  1. 50 year flood
                                                                    1. $40 million in damages
                                                                      1. Damage to homes and infrastructure
                                                                        1. 115 people died
                                                                          1. Santa Ana River burst its banks in many places
                                                                          2. Feb 27th-28th
                                                                      2. Landslides
                                                                        1. Examples
                                                                          1. La Conchita, 2005
                                                                            1. Impacts
                                                                              1. 10 people were killed
                                                                                1. 36 homes were damaged or destroyed
                                                                            2. Causes
                                                                              1. Intense rainfall and global warming
                                                                          2. Fog and Smog
                                                                            1. Causes
                                                                              1. It occurs when cool offshore air drifts inland and meets warm air (especially during summer)
                                                                                1. Likely to become more unpredictable with increasing climate change
                                                                                2. When combined with car pollution and chemical smog that collects in the basin the fog is made worse
                                                                            2. Tectonic
                                                                              1. Plate Margin
                                                                                1. Earthquakes
                                                                                  1. Examples
                                                                                    1. Loma Prieta
                                                                                      1. 1989
                                                                                        1. Oct 17th
                                                                                          1. 5:00pm
                                                                                        2. San Francisco Bay
                                                                                          1. Epicentre
                                                                                            1. Nisene Marks State Park
                                                                                            2. Impacts
                                                                                              1. 60 People died
                                                                                                1. Damage to transport infrastructure
                                                                                                  1. Collapse of Nimitz Freeway
                                                                                                    1. After quake all bridges in the area underwent reinforcement for earthquakes
                                                                                                  2. Occurred during world-series baseball match so earthquake was well televised and news about it could be broadcast quickly
                                                                                                    1. 6.9 on richter scale
                                                                                                  3. Northridge
                                                                                                    1. 1994
                                                                                                      1. Jan 17th
                                                                                                        1. 4:30am
                                                                                                      2. Impacts
                                                                                                        1. 70 People died
                                                                                                          1. 6.7 on richter scale
                                                                                                            1. Widespread severe property damage despite earthquake building regulations
                                                                                                              1. Transport systems in LA shut down
                                                                                                                1. Fires broke out in the San Fernando Valley, Venice and Malibu
                                                                                                                2. Epicentre
                                                                                                                  1. Northridge; a suburb of LA
                                                                                                                  2. Los Angeles
                                                                                                              2. Type
                                                                                                                1. Transform/Conservative
                                                                                                                  1. The Pacifc plate and North American Plate move past one another
                                                                                                                    1. Impacts
                                                                                                                      1. Very high magnitude earthquakes
                                                                                                                      2. Features
                                                                                                                        1. Linear Valleys/Trenches
                                                                                                              3. Human Factors
                                                                                                                1. Vulnerability
                                                                                                                  1. Large population but not very vulnerable due to high cpacity to cope
                                                                                                                  2. Capacity to cope
                                                                                                                    1. The ability of people, organisations and systems, using available skills and resources, to face and manage adverse conditions, emergencies or disasters
                                                                                                                    2. Enhanced Greenhouse Effect
                                                                                                                      1. Increased demand for producta and energy has led to increased use of fossil fuels and increased production of green house gases and particulates
                                                                                                                        1. Leads to global warming
                                                                                                                      2. Preperation
                                                                                                                        1. Many households have disaster kits which include water, food and a first aid kit among other things
                                                                                                                        2. Prevention
                                                                                                                          1. Building of life-safe homes and businesses
                                                                                                                          2. Education
                                                                                                                            1. Children in schools are taught about risks from earthquakes and are taught earthquake drills
                                                                                                                            2. Awareness of Risk
                                                                                                                              1. Choice to live in hazard area
                                                                                                                                1. Where the population are aware of the risks they may choose to live there regardless because they feel the benefits outway the costs
                                                                                                                                2. Population Size
                                                                                                                                  1. 38.8 million people
                                                                                                                                    1. Structure
                                                                                                                                      1. 12.5% over age of 65 23.9% under age of 18 27.0% foreign born 15.9% of people under poverty line
                                                                                                                                    2. Level of development
                                                                                                                                      1. MEDC
                                                                                                                                      2. Unsustainable use of resources
                                                                                                                                        1. Global climate change
                                                                                                                                          1. Increased flood, storm and drought events
                                                                                                                                        2. Urbanisation
                                                                                                                                          1. Rapid urbanisation and urban sprawl has led to increased surface run off and increased flood risk
                                                                                                                                        1. Background
                                                                                                                                          1. MEDC
                                                                                                                                            1. 38.8 million people
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