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Unit1: materials for OCR B incomplete

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1 Hooke's Law
1.1 tensile force
1.1.1 proportional extension if proportional limit not exceeded F∝x
1.2 spring constant
1.2.1 gradient units: N/m steep stiffer shallow stretchier
2 Young'd Modulus
2.1 Stress
2.1.1 F/A tensile force cross sectional area units:N/m^2
2.2 Strain
2.2.1 x/L extension original length no units
2.3 measure of elasticity
2.3.1 high stiff
2.3.2 low stretchy
2.4 Graph
2.4.1 up gradient more stiff brittle materials no plastic deformation breaks suddenly
2.4.2 for ductile materials elastic region obeys hooke's law up until proportional limit elastic limit no return to original shape yield point tensile strength large amount of plastic deformation with constant/ reduced load
2.4.3 platic region necking break point permanent deformation
3 Properties
3.1 strength
3.1.1 stress @ which material fails ductile premanent stretch brittle fracturing
3.2 ductile
3.2.1 easily drawn into wire
3.3 tough
3.3.1 opposite brittle
3.3.2 alot of energy create new surface area
3.4 hard
3.4.1 resistant scratching/cutting/abrasions
3.5 stiff
3.5.1 resistant bending/stretching
3.6 malleable
3.6.1 easily shaped
4 Inside Materials
4.1 bonding
4.1.1 polymer covalent bonds strong rotate flexible cross-links if stong rigid plastic
4.1.2 covalent shared electrons strong directional brittle rigid
4.1.3 ionic strong directional no slipping brittle rigid
4.1.4 metallic free electrons non-directional allows rows to slip ductile tough
4.2 structures
4.2.1 polycrystalline many grains random orientations crystals uniform rows of atoms