Biology Unit 2

Michael Maidment
Mind Map by Michael Maidment, updated more than 1 year ago
Michael Maidment
Created by Michael Maidment over 6 years ago
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A mind map of the whole of Biology Unit 2

Resource summary

Biology Unit 2
  1. Interactions Between Organisms
    1. Interspecific compertition
      1. Where organisms compete for resources against individuals of another species
      2. Intraspecific compertition
        1. Where organisms compete for resources against individuals of the same species
        2. Parasites
          1. live off host
            1. take what thy need to survive
              1. don't give anything back
                1. often harms the host
                2. Mutualism
                  1. Relationship were both organisms benafit
                  2. Animals will compete for a mate, food and shelter
                    1. Plants compete over space, sunlight and vit and mins in the soil
                      1. Predator-Prey cycle
                        1. They are out of phase because it takes a while for one population to respond to changes in the other population
                      2. Enviroment
                        1. Exponetionaly
                          1. When something increases very quickly
                          2. Global Warming
                            1. Caused by burning fossil fuels. This releases CO2 which gets trapped in the atmosphere causing the blanket effect and warming up the planet
                            2. Acid Rain
                              1. When fossil fuels and waste materials are burned releases sulphur dioxide. It reacts wih the water which makes sulphuric acid. This is what falls from the sky.
                              2. Ozone Depletion
                                1. CFC's are released into the atmosphere. It then gets broken down by the strong UV rays. This is called atomic chlorine. This then reacts with the ozone and makes holes in the layer.
                                2. Indicator Species
                                  1. Polluted Water
                                    1. Water Lice
                                      1. Rat-tailed maggots
                                        1. Sludgeworms
                                        2. Clean water
                                          1. Mayfly larvae
                                          2. Polluted air
                                            1. Little amount of Lichens
                                            2. Clean air
                                              1. Great amount of Lichens
                                            3. Animals can be endangered by
                                              1. Being Hunted
                                                1. Destruction of their habitat
                                                  1. Genetic change in their species
                                                2. Classififcation
                                                  1. Classification helps scientists understand how organisms are related
                                                    1. Difficulties with classification
                                                      1. New species might not fit into a catagory
                                                        1. Scientists might put the organism in the wrong group
                                                        2. 7 groups of classification
                                                          1. Kingdom
                                                            1. Phylum
                                                              1. Class
                                                                1. Order
                                                                  1. Family
                                                                    1. Genus
                                                                      1. Species
                                                          2. The binomial system
                                                            1. Each species is given a two-part Latin name. The first reserves to the genes and the second reserves to the species
                                                            2. Species
                                                              1. A group of organisms which can interbreed to produce to produce fertile offspring
                                                              2. Natural classification systems are based on the evolutionary relationships
                                                                1. Artificial classification system are based on the appearance rather than genes
                                                                  1. Hybrids
                                                                    1. When one species interbreed with another.
                                                                      1. They are often infertile as they have a different amount of chromosome
                                                                    2. Adaptations
                                                                      1. Features that organisms have to make them better suited to their enviroment
                                                                        1. Specialists
                                                                          1. Organisms which are highly-adapted to survive in a specific heat
                                                                          2. Generalists
                                                                            1. Organisms that are adapted to survive in a range of different enviroments
                                                                            2. Biochemical adaptations
                                                                              1. To adapted to extreme conditions like super hot volcanos or high pressure sea bed
                                                                              2. Anatomical adaptations
                                                                                1. Features of an organism's anatomy that help it to survive
                                                                                2. Pompeii Worm
                                                                                  1. Uses a thick layer of bacteria to protect its self from heat
                                                                                    1. It hides inside a papery tube to protect it from predators
                                                                                    2. Penguin
                                                                                      1. They have webbed feet for powerful swimming
                                                                                        1. Lots of blubber and thick skin to keep warm
                                                                                        2. Surface area to volume ratios
                                                                                          1. In cold environments, large organisms lose less heat to their surroundings than small organisms-because of their smaller surface area to volume ratio
                                                                                          2. Polar Bear
                                                                                            1. Claws on paws
                                                                                              1. Three layers of fat
                                                                                                1. Long Necks
                                                                                                  1. Skin changes colour
                                                                                                    1. Spread out on thin ice
                                                                                                    2. Camels
                                                                                                      1. Need very little water
                                                                                                        1. Has a body thermostst
                                                                                                          1. Does not need a lot of food
                                                                                                        2. Evolution
                                                                                                          1. Theory
                                                                                                            1. A supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained.
                                                                                                            2. Charles Darwin
                                                                                                              1. Surviual of the fittest
                                                                                                              2. Lamarck
                                                                                                                1. Characteristics been developed
                                                                                                                2. The theories' were not beliefed because of religious reasons and they also didn't have enough evidence
                                                                                                                  1. Darwin's theory has been proven
                                                                                                                    1. It has been debated and tested
                                                                                                                      1. They can't prove it wrong
                                                                                                                        1. Plausible explanation for so many observations of plants and animals
                                                                                                                      2. Feeding relationships
                                                                                                                        1. The energy starts from the Sun
                                                                                                                          1. The plants use the sunlight to perform a process called photosynthesis
                                                                                                                            1. The energy is transferred by different organisms consuming the other organisms
                                                                                                                          2. Trophic level
                                                                                                                            1. It is the stages in a food chain
                                                                                                                            2. Most energy is lost to the surroundings as heat
                                                                                                                              1. You can calculate how efficient a food chain by doing this calculation
                                                                                                                                1. efficiency=energy available to the next level/energy that was available to the previous level x 100
                                                                                                                              2. Carbon Cycle
                                                                                                                                1. Nitrogen Cycle
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