Cosmopolitanization

Yutian Zhao
Mind Map by Yutian Zhao, updated more than 1 year ago
Yutian Zhao
Created by Yutian Zhao over 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Cosmopolitanization, created by Yutian Zhao on 05/14/2015.

Resource summary

Cosmopolitanization
  1. cosmopolitanized nation
    1. the nationalism/cosmopolitanism divide

      Annotations:

      •    二分法的assumption:At the core of these dualities is an assumption that belonging operates primarily, even exclusively, in the context of communal allegiances expressing thick solidarities.   
      1. methdological nationalism

        Annotations:

        • the national-territorial remains the primary container for the analysis of social, economic, political and cultural processes. binding history and borders tightly together is the only possible means of social and symbolic integration.
        1. cosmopolitanism

          Annotations:

          • overcome the prevailing methodological nationalism,develop an analytical idiom of ‘modern society’ not limited to a national ontology and suggestive of alternative modes of belonging.
          1. 局限

            Annotations:

            •    1-- For one, it is frequently treated as a normative concept focusing on a static ism rather than a process oriented notion of cosmopolitization. This normative outlook tends to imply an antidote to nationalism (Nussbaum 1996). 2-- On this view, the discussion revolves around a dichotomy of the national and the cosmopolitan, which is mirrored in a juxtaposition of universalism (often decried as a form of Western imposition) and particularism (often dismissed as cultural relati-vism). 3--Lastly, these polarities are underwritten by a simplistic (and a-historical) dichotomy of thick national versus thin cosmopolitan belonging.   
            1. formation of cosmopolitan nation

              Annotations:

              •    1--we suggest that this figuration is coextensive with new forms of sociability. More specifically, we propose a new mode of collective identification by differentiating between presumptions of thick belonging and the proliferation of cosmopolitan affiliations. This reimagination of collectivities is, among other things, circumscribed in the contex of global norms (e.g. human rights), globalized markets, transnational migrations, embeddedness in international organizations and global risks. 2--we contend that cosmopolitization itself is a constitutive feature/mechanism for the reconfiguration/reimagination of nationhood.  Focus on cosmopolitan reality produces side-effects that are often not wanted and even go unobserved. A ‘banal’ and ‘coercive’ cosmopolitization unfolds beneath the surface of persisting national spaces. 3-- Globalization provides a new context for the transformation of national identifications. cosmopolitanization imply an interactive relationship between the global and the local. 是interconnec-ted and reciprocally interpenetrating principles’ (Beck 2006: 72-73). 4--空间--时间:nationhood is being recalibrated through the proliferation of imageries that are based on the cosmopolitization of the temporal triad of past-present-future. cosmopolitanized nations are reimagined through the anticipation of endangered futures. They are reimagined collectivities based on new forms of affiliation that are generated by shared encounters with risk.   
            2. 关系

              Annotations:

              •    1--nation is a constructed category: Cosmopolitanism 并没有否定nation的定义   2-- Cosmopolitanism itself is articulated in opposition to this conventional (i.e. naturalized image) and inevitable version of the nation. Accordingly, nationalism and cosmopolitanism are frequently conceptualized as part of an unchanging zero-sum game. Cosmopolitanism as complementary to nationalism。   
            3. national time--cosmoplitan time

              Annotations:

              •    1--a resilient methodological nationalism bound up with the presupposition that the national-territorial remains the key principle and yardstick for the study of social, economic, political and cultural processes (Beck and Sznaider 2006b, 2010; Levy and Sznaider 2010). On this view, the nation-state reflects a ‘spatial understanding of the possibility of political community, an understanding that necessarily gives priority to the fixing of processes of historical change in space. Not only does the principle of state sovereignty reflect a historically specific resolution of questions about the universality and particularity of political community, but it also fixes that resolution within categories that have absorbed a metaphysical claim to timelessness. . . . Time and change are perceived as dangers to be contained’ (Walker 1990: 172-173).   2-需要一个changing temporal figuration,temporal conception(religious-myth,national--modern state producing empty and homogeneous time,都是为了provide political 和 cultural response to the future,contemporary global--fragmented,absense of dominant narrative of the future,contingent)risk 不会导致pure normative cosmopolitanism,而是produce “impure”--global other in our midest。而产生的 risk collectivity= imagine cosmopolitan collecitivity, can no longer be socially delimited in  space or time。模糊不清。   
              1. cosmopolitan figuration

                Annotations:

                •    Figurations thus are webs of interdependence, which tie individuals together and shape their collective self-unders-tandings and the ways in which they articulate times within changing existential coordinates. ‘People make up webs of interdependence or figurations of many kinds, characterized by power balances of many sorts, such as families, schools, towns, social strata, or states.’ (Elias 1978: 15) What matters for our purposes, is that over time, these figurations frequently mutate into new forms. Villages have become cities, tribal solida-rities are absorbed into larger states, cities have become global to name but a few examples for how collectives have been re-imagined in the context of changing social, political and economic interdependencies.   
                1. mediated affiliation
                  1. media representation

                    Annotations:

                    • 1. media representations have played a crucial role in these processes of reimagiNation. 2.The nation-state, at the turn of the 20th century, depended for its coming intoexistence on a pro-cess by which existing societies used represen-tations toturn themselves into new wholes that would act on people’s feelings, and uponwhich they could base their identities – in short, to make them into groupsthat individuals could identify with. This nation building process parallelswhat is happening through globalization at the turn of the 21st century.  
                    1. authentic feeling s and collective feelings

                      Annotations:

                      • So if the nation is the basis for authentic feelings and collective memory – as the critics of global culture seem to believe almost una-nimously – then it cannot be maintained that representations are a superficial substitute for authentic experience. On the contrary, repre-sentations are the basis of that authenticity. 
                      1. imagined cosmpolitan affiliation

                        Annotations:

                        • media representation create conditions for the expansion of affiliations beyond the nation-state. How can we apply the concept of imagined cosmopolitan collectivities in a new, expanded form, for exploring the social and poli-tical consequences of global risks?
                        1. groupness, narrow understanding of belonging, strong form of belonging
                          1. cosmopolitan and belonging/nationalism

                            Annotations:

                            • 1.Cosmopolitanism, by contrast, is frequently cha-racterized (by both its normative champions and nationalist opponents) as the breaking down of boundaries: people associate freely, unmediated by blinkered categories of nationhood.  2.Under-lying this dualistic notion is an assumption that belonging operates primarily, even exclusively, in the context of communal allegiances expressing thick solidarities. 
                            1. Calhoun

                              Annotations:

                              • 1.Craig Calhoun has pointed out, we ought not succumb to the opposite fallacy either, which presents cosmopo-litan identity ‘as freedom from social belonging rather than a special form of belonging, a view from nowhere or everywhere, rather than from particular social spaces’ (Calhoun 2003: 532).  2.Calhoun’s (2007) critical engagement with the nexus of cosmopolitanism and nationalism has yielded important insights.  3.According to Cal-houn ‘cosmopolitanism is neither a freedom from culture nor a matter of pure individual choice, but a cultural position constructed on particular social bases and a choice made possible by that culture and those bases‘ (Calhoun 2003: 544).
                              1. 作者

                                Annotations:

                                • 1.In our view, the cosmopolitization of these bases becomes a readily available complement and source for the reconfiguration of the national (not its alternative).  2.Ultimately, at both the national and cosmopolitan level, successful identificationswith distant others are predicated on a balance between immediate attachments with concrete others (e.g. kin, local) and thickening versions of solidarity with distant others (e.g. the nation, the global).
                                1. cosmopolitanized affliation

                                  Annotations:

                                  • 1.People remain indif-ferent to political decisions as such. It is not until they begin to communicate with one another about the problematic consequences of decisions that they wake up. It is this communication that shakes them out of their complacency and makes them worry. It shakes them out of their indiffe-rence, creating a public sphere and a potential collectivity of action.  2.In our language, it is global risk – or, more precisely, the staging and theper-ception of global risk – that creates imagined col-lectivities across allkinds of boundaries.  
                                  1. Mediated affilation
                    2. the world risk society

                      Annotations:

                      • World risk society: focuses on global institutional factors and transformation process, exploring how global principals penetrate societies.
                      1. transformation
                        1. human right imperative

                          Annotations:

                          •    1-Cosmopolitanization focuses on national abuse of human rights 2-this is find in increasingly de-nationalized conception of legitimacy,which results in a cosmopolitanized souvereignty. 3-human rights norms are a key site for the incorporation of cosmopolitan imperatives into national consciousness and the transformation of national self-definitions. 4-.institutional cosmopolitanism as a top-down approach provide limited inference on how much transformation of judicial sphere actually trickles down to society. 5-however law has jurisgenerative power that encourage new form of subjectivity to enter public sphere, legal domain is a strategic site for transformation.   
                          1. world market imperative

                            Annotations:

                            •    1- deregulation is vehicle through which state incorporate world market regime and guaratee the rights of global capitals as essential ingredient of the national. 2-- but we see a self-dilution of unpolitical innocence in twofold sense: political class brought about the alleged powerlessness to act through its own conduct, by imposed rules of globalized market at national level under the banner of "reform policy", thus giving rise to the alleged no longer controllable financial world risk capitalism. On the other hand, no consensual global political answers to the consequence of globalization, allegedly nothing can be done!     
                            1. migration," the global other"

                              Annotations:

                              •  As greater economic interdependence is fostered among countries through trade and investment, a transnational space is created for the circulation not only of goods and capital, but for the cosmo-politization of labour as well. Cosmopolitization through migration is here created by the systema-tic link between labor emigration and develop-ment and its institutionalization through natio-nal state policy with the sanction of international bodies.   
                              1. moral ethical turn--Ong

                                Annotations:

                                • media as enabling or dis-abling a moral-ethical disposition among individuals; the centrality of morality
                                1. silver stone

                                  Annotations:

                                  • 1.we who are engaged in 
                                  1. couldry
                                    1. Chouliaraki
                                  2. global generation, civil society movement

                                    Annotations:

                                    • 1. all of these civil society actors have three features in common:  first, they come as a surprise, which means, they are beyond political and socio-logical imagination;  second, they are transnational or global in their scope and consequences; and third, they are centred on issues of justice, equality and human rights using the virtual electronic space of the internet, a powerful site for transforming and re-imagining the national 2--结果:产生global generation--cosmopolitanized nation are being conflictfully recreated Consequently, the idea of generations isolated within national boundaries is historically out of date. What we are observing is the rise of ‘global generations’ (Beck and Beck-Gernsheim 2009), the deepening of generational gaps and conflicts at the same time inside and across national borders, through which cosmopolitanized nations are being conflictfully re-created.   3.Civil society movements are, after all, the entrepreneurs of the cosmopolitan commonwealth. They not only develop the categories in which global issues of poverty, human rights, women’s rights, justice, cli-mate change etc., are formulated; they also place them in practice on the political agenda, both at the national and the global level.  4.Of course, these civil society movements are not a one-way street, but the full range of the social forces will use its power, from fighters for human rights to political and religious fundamentalists. Global civil society becomes a democratic space for many opposing views including a range of anti-cosmopolitan uses as well.   
                                    1. local interpretation of world religion

                                      Annotations:

                                      •   1.we are living in an ‘age of comparing’ where all religious believe sys-tems are in one way or the other present in all locations of the globe. That fact – a shared present and universal proximity – creates new forms of coexistence, interpenetration, resistance and conflict among world religions. The ‘religious other’ is in our midst (Beck 2010). By committing themselves to universalism, the world religions create a hierarchy of superiority and inferiority which results in a radi-cal otherness.   2. 2--结果:on the one hand, by decoupling modernity from Westernization, since this denies the West its monopoly of modernity. On the other hand, the certitudes of Christian revelations are forced to confront the certitudes of the revelations of Islam and other faiths. The result is that the necessity to compare the dif-ferent religious faith under conditions of their mutual interpenetration ends up in an everyday clash of religious universalisms.   
                                  3. mediation, reimagination of cosmopolitan risk collectivity

                                    Annotations:

                                    •    总结:1--cosmopolitanism,as a analytical paradigm,highlights the emergence of new social spaces and imaginaries through their very interaction. Cosmopolitization carries transformative effects for the inner grammar of cultural and national identifications它的转变 themselves.   2--GMEs do set the agenda and create the potential for phatic morality as a foundation of cosmopolitan risk collectivities.   
                                    1. media role

                                      Annotations:

                                      • seminal role of the media in producing new frameworks of identification.
                                      1. risk perception and mediated representations

                                        Annotations:

                                        •    The linkage between risk perception and mediatized disaster representations is not incidental but intrinsic to each. Risks are social constructions and definitions based upon corresponding relations of definition. Their ‘reality’ can be dra-matized or minimized, transformed or simply denied according to the norms which decide what is known and what is not. They are products of struggles and conflicts over definitions within the context of specific relations of definitional power, hence the (in varying degrees successful) results of stagings (Beck 2009: 30).   
                                        1. power of media

                                          Annotations:

                                          • power of the media:definitional authority(Beck and Kropp),agenda-setting function foucus on diasters carry the requsit feature of  meida event(Dayan and Katz),social and cultural judgement constitute risk。
                                          1. alleviate anxiety

                                            Annotations:

                                            •    the global media(tiza)tion of risks also provides new temporal narratives intended to alleviate our anxieties about the future. risks are now enmeshed in an age of post-catastrophy via the principle of premediation.   
                                          2. Global Media Event

                                            Annotations:

                                            •    GMEs are very much present in daily routines because they call our attention long before they occur, there are always people engaged in one or more of them, and, finally, when one event concludes another will begin’ (Ribes 2010:5). They may depend on how disasters are mediat(iz)ed and locally appropriated in the context of world risk society   
                                            1. premediation and remediation

                                              Annotations:

                                              •    区别:Grusin has pointed out: ‘Where remediation cha-racterized what was ‘new’ about new media at the end of the twentieth century as its insistent reme-diation of prior media forms and practices, pre-mediation characterizes the mediality of the first decade of the twenty-first as focused on the cultu-ral desire to make sure that the future has already been pre-mediated before it turns into the present (or the past)’ Premediation differs from remediation in that it is no longer concerned with earlier questions about the authenticity of representation.   关系:Nor should it be confused with the prognostic ambitions of earlier times. ‘Premediation is not to be confused with prediction. Premediation is not about getting the future right , but about proliferating multiple remeditations of the future both to maintain a low level of fear in the present and to prevent a recurrence of the kind of tremendous media shock that the United States and much of the networked world experienced on 9/11’ 。Premediating the future entails remediating the past’ (Grusin 2010: 8).   
                                              1. moral sensibility

                                                Annotations:

                                                •    大部分学者认为:能产生是因为audience attentiveness and active involvment,empathy   Frosh: 强调phatic morality,the moral ground created by long-term, habitual, ambient forms of mediated connectivity…’  他认为:‘television is in part morally enabling because of forms of inattention and indifference that frequently characterize relations between the medium and its audience, as well as between viewers and viewed’ (Frosh 2011: 385). Accordingly audience inattention is not a deficiency but a necessary condition for what he calls ‘mediated sociality   
                                                1. moral ethical turn--Ong
                                              2. outlook

                                                Annotations:

                                                •    1.What are the conditions for the creation of ontological security inscribed into cosmopolitanized nations? In order to suc-ceed cosmopolitanism too needs to build on a set of pre-existing meaning systems (and transform them without losing track of their ‘function’) and attendant visions of the future. 2.How then can cosmopolitan figu-rations in world risk societies become co-extensive with new forms of sociability? More specifically, how can we differentiate between assumptions of thick belonging and the proliferation of cosmo-politan affiliations? 3.these processes raise questions of ‘metho-logical cosmopolitanism’ (Beck 2000; 2006; Beck and Sznaider 2006) as such, especially with regard to the relation between theory and empirical data   
                                                1. summary: 1. the concept of national--cosmopolitan nation 2. modern collectivities preoccupied with risk 3.risk cannot be forcast and constrcuted by media. 4. comopolitanied risk collecticities--reimagination of nationhood 5.cosmopolitan reconfiguration of nationhood,how?
                                                  1. cosmopolitan realism

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    •    Cosmopolitan realism calls for neither the sacrifice of one’s own interests, nor an exclusive bias towards higher ideas and ideals. On the contrary it accepts that for the most part political action is interest-based. But it insists on an approach to the pursuit of one’s own interests that is compa-tible with those of larger entities. Thus cosmopo-litical realism basically means the recognition of the legitimate interests of others and their inclu-sion in the calculation of one’s own interests.   
                                                  2. modernity

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • not happen at the same time
                                                    1. first--Beck,Gideens

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • 1.Characterized by progress from agrarianism, through the rise of industrialization, capitalism and the nation-state 农业社会--工业革命--资本主义社会转变 2. ‘Naturalized’ view of the nation 3.  Establishment of national and international organizations,internationalization   国际组织出现  4. Organizations to represent the people?   5. Monological hierarchical communication    6. Mass-mediated events   7. Impersonality, anonymity and abstractness, but also ‘abstract’ trust in national organizations  8. ‘Simple’ globalization   
                                                      1. second

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        •    1)World risk society 2) Re-invention of global political economic and social relations, the re-invention of global self 3) Old organizations losing their legitimacy 4)Less trust in organizations 5) New media 6) Also dialogical   7) Either/or is replaced by both/and principle 8) Global risks, cosmopolitanization   
                                                      2. trust

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        •    1.Social order is no longer based on personal trust, as within small communities, but that modern societies are characterized by the increasing importance of trust in systems, which is built on the belief that others also trust these institutions, rather than on a feeling of familiarity that creates solidarity (Luhmann, 1979).  2. Trust remains a risky undertaking (Luhmann, 1979).   
                                                        1. globalization

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          •    1). Globalization concerns the intersection of presence and absence, the interlacing of social events ‘at distance’ with local contextualities (Giddens, 1991) 2).Five scapes on the move: junctures and disjunctures (Appadurai, 1990) 3) Disembedding (‘lifting out’) of social relations from local contexts of interaction and their restructuring across indefinite spans of time-space (Giddens, 1991)   
                                                          1. global risks and crisis--Cottle 2011

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            •    1) Constantly emergent or even enduring critical events and threats that emanate from within today’s global (dis)order and that range across and interpenetrate within different realms of global interdependency.  2)They constitute material and discursive sites for actions and responses that extend, exacerbate or intensify processes of global interconnection and, potentially, can deepen awareness of today’s globality. 3)In today’s mediated and mediatized world their elaboration and  enactment within the flows and formations of the world news ecology shapes their constitution and can also variously influence their subsequent course and conduct.    
                                                            1. global media event

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              •    1) Media events integrate society in a collective heartbeat and evoke a renewal of loyalty to the society and its legitimate authority (Dayan & Katz, 1994) 2)Spirit of communitas (Dayan & Katz, 1994) in imagined national communities 3) Global media events situated in terms of their global interconnections, boundarylessness and mobility (Cottle, 2011) 4) A mediated form of solidarity (Couldry, 2003), global consciousness  in a world community?     
                                                              1. mass self-communication

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                •    1) Horizontal networks make possible the rise of mass self-communication, decisively increasing the autonomy of communicating subjects vis-à-vis communication corporations, as the users become both senders and receivers of messages (Castells, 2009). 2)Constitutive character of communicative agency in second modernity (Hier, 2008)   
                                                                1. cosmopolitanization

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  •    1)Cosmopolitanization means internal globalization from within national societies. This transforms everyday consciousness and identities significantly. Issues of global concerns are becoming part of the everyday local experiences and the ‘moral life-worlds’ of the people (Beck, 2002). 2)Thick and thin solidarities (Beck & Levy,2013)   
                                                                  1. 对比

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    •    1) From above   vs  from below 2) Macro             vs  micro 3) Structure        vs  agency 4)Collective        vs individual 5)Mass communication    vs mass self-communication 6) Trust in traditional institutions  vs trust in temporary groups and self 7)Either or         vs both and   
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