MODELS OF HEALTH

Keely Mountjoy
Mind Map by Keely Mountjoy, updated more than 1 year ago
Keely Mountjoy
Created by Keely Mountjoy over 6 years ago
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Description

An overview of the two models of health and their advantages, disadvantages and principles.

Resource summary

MODELS OF HEALTH
  1. Biomedical model of health
    1. Referred to as the 'bandaid' or 'quick fix' approach. Involves trying to diagnose and treat illnesses and conditions once symptoms are present.
      1. Centres around doctors, health professionals and hospitals who administer treatment. Examples in; surgery, medication and x-rays.
        1. Concentrates on disease, illness or disability and attempts to return the physical health of the person to a pre-illness state
          1. The reasons for the illness are not the centre, the condition itself is the focus and treatments are considered the solution
            1. LIMITATIONS/DISADVANTAGES
              1. It relies on professional health workers and technology and is therefore costly. As individuals are the focus of this model, people with specialist knowledge about disease and treatment are required to adequately treat the patient. As knowledge and technology have developed, the cost of training and equipment has also increased. Some machines required for diagnosis (such as MRI machines) and treatment (such as robotic surgery systems) can cost millions of dollars and may only be able to treat a small number of patients each day.
                1. It doesn’t always promote good health. The biomedical model encourages a reliance on quick-fix solutions to health issues. As the focus is on the condition itself rather than the determinants that caused it, the biomedical model does not encourage people to be responsible for their own health.
                  1. Not every condition can be treated. Those relying on the biomedical model to restore optimal health may experience conditions that cannot be cured or treated effectively. These conditions may be preventable through behaviour change; however, this is not a focus of the biomedical model. Cancer is an example of a condition that has treatments available but in many cases, no cure.
                    1. Affordability. Not all individuals can afford the medical technologies and resources that are a part of the biomedical model of health care. This is an important factor contributing to the differences experienced in health status.
                    2. ADVANTAGES
                      1. It creates advances in technology and research. Without the biomedical model of health, there would be no x-rays, antibiotics or anaesthetics. There would also be relatively little knowledge about how to diagnose and treat illness.
                        1. Many common problems can be effectively treated. Most people have had a range of medicines over the course of their lives. These are often taken for granted as they stop diseases that would otherwise develop and cause considerable ill-health or death.
                          1. Extends life expectancy. Many causes of death that were common in the past, such as some infectious diseases, can now be treated and cured.
                            1. Improves quality of life. Many chronic conditions can be managed with medication, therapy or surgery. These interventions can improve the level of health experienced by many individuals.
                          2. Social model of health
                            1. Attempts to address the brooder influences on health (social, cultural, environmental and economic factors) rather then the disease or injury itself
                              1. Recognised the relationship between the social determinants of health and health status and takes into account the significant role that factors play in bringing about improved health status,
                                1. THE PRINCIPLES OF THE SOCIAL MODEL OF HEALTH
                                  1. Addresses the broader determinants of health. Behavioural determinants, such as reducing tobacco smoking and food intake, are an important part of improving health, but these factors are often themselves influenced by other, broader determinants such as gender, culture, race or ethnicity, socioeconomic status, geographical location and physical environment. These broader determinants of health have been shown to have strong relationships with health status and are increasingly becoming the focus of health promotion strategies. Addressing these determinants is a key aspect of the social model of health.
                                    1. Involves intersectoral collaboration. There are many government and non-government organisations and stakeholders who have an influence over the social and environmental determinants of health. Some of these groups include government departments responsible for employment, education and finance, as well as the private sector, including service providers and manufacturers who sit outside the health system. The health system, while contributing significantly to health status, does not have as much influence over the social environment. Only by involving all interested and concerned groups can the social determinants be adequately addressed.
                                      1. Acts to reduce social inequities. To achieve this, the social factors that contribute to inequities in health status must be addressed. Many individuals and population groups are heavily influenced by social determinants of health such as gender, culture, race, socioeconomic status, access to health care, social exclusion and the physical environment.
                                        1. Acts to enable access to health care. Health care is a significant determinant of health and is a contributing factor in the health status experienced by most people. There are many social factors that can impact on access to health care. Some of these include cultural and language barriers, economic and geographical factors, and education levels.
                                          1. Empowers individuals and communities. Empowering individuals and communities means they can participate in decision making about their health. Individuals are more likely to participate in healthy behaviours if they feel they have a sense of power and control over their situation. Empowering individuals and communities with health knowledge and skills means that they are in a position to make positive changes to their health.
                                          2. PROGRAMS
                                            1. 'Close the gap' indigenous campaign
                                              1. 'Sunsmart' program
                                                1. 'Breastscreen Australia'
                                                  1. 'Rural Retention Program'
                                                    1. 'Quit'
                                                      1. 'Be a man-talk to your doctor about prostate cancer;
                                                        1. 'Swap it, don't stop it' campaign
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