OTTAWA CHARTER

Keely Mountjoy
Mind Map by Keely Mountjoy, updated more than 1 year ago
Keely Mountjoy
Created by Keely Mountjoy over 6 years ago
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Description

An overview on the Ottawa Charter.

Resource summary

OTTAWA CHARTER
  1. Prerequisites/conditions that must be available
    1. peace. Countries and communities that are experiencing peace are able to utilise their resources for promoting health. Conflict on the other hand, often diverts resources away from health to other areas, such as defence.
      1. shelter. Shelter is required for both protection from the elements and safety. Those without shelter are at the mercy of their environment and often spend energy finding shelter, which does not allow significant improvements to health to be made.
        1. education. Education is an influencing factor for other determinants such as employment and literacy. A lack of education does not provide individuals and community with the necessary resources to take control of their health.
          1. food. Nutrition is essential for the adequate functioning of the body. Limited or no access to a variety of food containing all necessary nutrients does not allow individuals to improve their health.
            1. income. Income influences a range of factors such as housing, education, food intake and access to health care. Limited income prevents many individuals from accessing these resources.
              1. a stable ecosystem. This refers to the balance between the landscape and species (both plants and animals) that live in an environment. There will be fluctuations in the balance, but changes should not be too pronounced. The ecosystem provides many resources for health, including food, air and water.
                1. sustainable resources. Many resources are required for health, such as food, water and a source of income. These resources can include fish, oil supplies and timber for building. If these resources are not sustainable, future generations will not be able to benefit from them.
                  1. social justice and equity. This refers to all people being valued and receiving fair treatment. It goes beyond enforcing laws and ensures that all people can share in the benefits of a society.
                  2. Strategies for health promotion
                    1. Advocate; actions that seek to gain support from governments and societies in general to make the changes necessary to improve the determinants of health for everyone
                      1. Enable;ensuring access to education, employment, adequate housing, nutritious food and health care
                        1. Mediate; relates to helping groups resolve conflicts on changes to funding, legislation and policies and produce outcomes that promote health
                        2. Action areas
                          1. Build healthy public policy. This relates directly to the decisions made by government and organisations in relation to laws and policies that affect health. Examples include removing the goods and services tax (GST) on unprocessed foods (which are healthier options than processed foods) and increasing the tax on certain alcoholic drinks. Policies and laws such as these make it more difficult for people to participate in unhealthy behaviours, thereby reducing exposure to determinants that can cause ill health. Some of these are designed to make the environment healthier for those who choose not to participate in unhealthy behaviours (such as banning smoking in public places) and others aim to directly influence behaviour (such as the compulsory wearing of seatbelts). In this capacity, laws and policies make healthier choices easier choices.
                            1. Create supportive environments. A supportive environment is one that promotes health by being safe, stimulating, satisfying and enjoyable. Supportive environments promote health by helping people practise healthy behaviours. Examples of this include Quitline (a support service for smokers wanting to quit, which provides a supportive social environment), providing shaded areas in school playgrounds (reducing the rate of UV exposure, which provides a supportive physical environment) and investing in sustainable energy production (ensuring that future generations also have access to a healthy environment). This priority area recognises the impact that the broader determinants have on health and aims to promote a healthy physical and social environment for all members of the community. A healthy physical and social environment includes a satisfying and fulfilling work and social life (including support for those who need it) and can help with improving health status. This action area also
                              1. Strengthen community action. This priority area focuses on building links between individuals and the community and centres around the community working together to achieve a common goal. Giving the community a sense of ownership of a health strategy increases the likelihood of its effectiveness. The Central Australian Aboriginal Congress (CAAC) in Alice Springs is an example of this. CAAC is a health service provider and educator run by Aboriginal people for Aboriginal people. The rates of participation in the CAAC program are high as people feel a connection. A range of Aboriginal people in Central Australia work together to promote the wellbeing of their community. The service provides health care, education and advocacy. The more people who work together towards a common goal, the greater the chance of success. Another example of this is the government’s immunisation strategy.
                                1. Develop personal skills. Education is the key aspect of this priority area. Education refers to gaining health-related knowledge (such as attending classes teaching healthy cooking techniques) and gaining life skills that allow people to make informed decisions that may indirectly effect health (such as talking to people to resolve conflict rather than using violence).
                                  1. Reorient health services. This priority area refers to reorienting the health system so that it promotes health as opposed to only focussing on diagnosing and treating illness, as is the case with the biomedical model. In order to reorient health services, the health system must encompass not only doctors and hospitals, but all members of the community including individuals, community groups, health professionals, health service institutions and governments. The social model of health sees individuals as a whole person, not just a physical being. A health system that reflects the social model of health must therefore address all of the determinants of health, not just diseases. This requires a shift towards health promotion, which includes doctors taking on the role of educator. This priority area does not suggest neglecting the biomedical model, but rather incorporating health promotion to play a more significant role. Examples of this priority area include focusing on healthy eati
                                  2. LOGO
                                    1. The outside circle, in red, represents the action area of ‘Building Healthy Public Policy’, therefore symbolising the need for policies to ‘hold things together’. This circle encompasses the three wings, symbolising the need to address all five key action areas of health promotion identified in the Ottawa Charter. The round spot within the circle stands for the three basic strategies for health promotion, ‘enabling, mediating, and advocacy’, which are needed for and applied to all health promotion action areas. The three wings represent (and contain the words of) the five key action areas for health promotion that were identified in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion.
                                      1. More specifically: The upper wing that is breaking the circle represents that action is needed to ‘strengthen community action’ and to ‘develop personal skills’. This wing is breaking the circle to symbolise that society and communities as well as individuals are constantly changing and, therefore, the policy sphere has to constantly react and develop to reflect these changes: a ‘healthy public policy’ is needed. The middle wing on the right side represents that action is needed to ‘create supportive environments for health’. The bottom wing represents that action is needed to ‘reorient health services’ towards preventing diseases and promoting health. Overall, the logo visualises the idea that health promotion relies on a number of different strategies and actions being used together to improve health for all.
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