LO3- Criminological theory in relation to partner violence and sexual assault

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Mind Map on LO3- Criminological theory in relation to partner violence and sexual assault, created by nicole.07 on 05/19/2015.

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LO3- Criminological theory in relation to partner violence and sexual assault
  1. LO3.3- Evaluate trends in intimate partner violence and sexual assault using statistical information
    1. Intimate partner violence and sexual assault
      1. “An estimated 1.4 million women and 700,000 men have suffered domestic abuse in the last year, according to figures from the Office for National Statistics (ONS).” –(Travis A, 2015, p.1)
        1. The ONS data highlights a hidden link between domestic abuse and poverty with women who live in the poorest households more than three times likely to be victims of domestic abuse.
        2. The statistics on the extensive nature of sexual assault and intimate partner violence are disturbing according to 2003 Congressional records. It is estimated that “One in six women in the United States have been victims of rape or attempted rape. One in five children will be a victim of sexual abuse before researching the age of 18.” – (Congress, 2003, p.14261)
          1. According to the New York state office for the prevention of domestic violence adults and children are the most at risk of sexual abuse by someone they know (intimately or casually), not by a stranger. Women are the greatest at risk of both physical assault and sexual assault by their intimate partners. Intimate partner violence (IPV) of all kinds according to New York state office for the prevention of domestic violence is underreported (sexual abuse in particular). “One study estimates that only 16% of all sexual assaults are reported. The harm of violence from an acquaintance or intimate partner is exacerbated if sexual abuse has also occurred;; victims who have experienced both forms of abuse report higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, and substance abuse.” Reports also suggest that women who do report sexual assault are less likely to be re-victimized, so it is important that any individual providing supportive services to domestic violence victims do
            1. However CSEW states that, “Domestic violence is a very private crime. Victims of domestic violence are less likely than victims of other forms of violence to report their experiences to the authorities because of beliefs that their abuse is not a matter for police involvement, their experiences too trivial, or from fear of reprisal. There is thus significant under-reporting of domestic abuse by victims, and it is acknowledged that data on reported incidents and cases prosecuted, which has recently started being collected by the criminal justice system, represents the tip of the iceberg.” –(Dar A, 2013, p.2)
          2. LO3.1- Explain the risk factors that relate to intimate partner violence and sexual assault
            1. Intimate partner violence
              1. Individuals with certain risk factors are more likely than others to become perpetrators or victims of IPV (intimate partner violence). Some of these risk factors could include: Relationship factors- These factors could involve martial conflicts, dominance and control of the relationship with partner, economic stress and unhealthy family relationships. Societal factors- These factors could include traditional gender norms. Community factors- These factors could include poverty and associated factors, low social capital-lack of institutions, relationships and norms that shape a community’s social interactions and weak community sanctions against IPV. Individual Risk Factors- These factors could include unemployment, anger, antisocial personality traits and desire for power and control in relationships.
                1. These risk factors could contribute to IPV but not be direct causes, not every individual who is identified as ‘at risk’ will become involved in violence.
                2. Some risk factors for IPV perpetration and victimization are similar whilst others could be associated with another. A combination of (individual, relational, community, and societal factors) could contribute to the risk of becoming an IPV perpetrator or victim. Understanding these multilevel factors could help identify opportunities for prevention.
                  1. "Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, preventable public health problem that affects millions. The term "intimate partner violence" describes physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse
                  2. Sexual assault
                    1. Risk factors for women for sexual assault could include: Alcohol or drug use and past experiences of sexual abuse or assault. It is important to remember though that no woman is sexually assaulted because she lives, acts or dresses in a certain way. The risk factors for sexual assault only increase the chance that a sexual assault could occur and does not mean the woman is to blame for the sexual assault. Risk factors (which might predict men’s inclination to sexually assault) could include: Alcohol or drug use and fantasies supporting sexual violence. These risk factors have been found to have an addictive effect to the perpetrator (the more risk factors which are present, the higher the chance that sexual violence in some form may occur).
                      1. "A person commits sexual assault if they intentionally touch another person, the touching is sexual and the person does not consent."
                    2. LO3.2- Explain the existing protective measures for victims of partner violence and sexual assault
                      1. Victims of partner violence and sexual assault
                        1. Victims of partner violence and sexual assault is recognised as a serious offence with negative impacts on the social community and the rights of individuals. This also requires efficient and strong responses from government bodies and civil society organisations who have to deal with these issues. The police therefore in their conduct have to adhere to the following principles which are defined in the general protocol for action and cooperation of institutions, bodies and organisations in the situations of partner violence and sexual assault. This includes:
                          1. “1. The Victim’s security (safety) is the priority 2. To ensure the wellbeing and safety of children by ensuring support and safety 3. The perpetrator is entirely responsible for violent behaviour. 4. All interventions should take into account the inequality of power between the victim and the perpetrator of domestic violence. 5. Respect the needs, rights and dignity of the victim. 6. Emergency of procedure is in accordance with the assessed danger of the situation and vulnerability of the victim. 7. Institutions, within their roles, competencies and missions, shall be responsible to stop violence and undertake protection measures. 8. Raise professional competencies through planned education and promotion of best practice examples.”
                      2. LO3.4- Evaluate criminological theory in relation to intimate partner violence and sexual assault
                        1. Bronfenbrenner’s (1979, 1986, 1995) ecological theory of individual development considers that human development occurs though interactions that continually evolve between individuals and their multiple interconnected environmental backgrounds.
                          1. Bronfenbrenner’s model separates environmental influences into levels These levels reflect the, “multiple levels reflecting the relative size, immediacy of interaction, and degree of formality/informality of the environmental setting.” – (Campbell R & Dworkin E & Cabral G, 2011, p.3) The individual levels comprise, “bio-psycho-social characteristics of the person, the microsystem focuses on direct interpersonal interactions between individuals and members of their immediate environment such as families, friends, and peers” – (Campbell R & Dworkin E & Cabral G, 2011, p.3) The microsystem focuses on, “direct interpersonal interactions between individuals and members of their immediate environment such as families, friends, and peers; the mesosystem reflects interconnections and linkages between individuals and between individuals and systems” – (Campbell R & Dworkin E & Cabral G, 2011, p.3)
                            1. The exosystem includes, “organizations and social systems (e.g., legal, medical, and mental health)” – (Campbell R & Dworkin E & Cabral G, 2011, p.3) The macrosystem includes, “societal norms, expectations, and beliefs that form the broader social environment” – (Campbell R & Dworkin E & Cabral G, 2011, p.3) The chronosystem encompasses, “the changes that occur over time between persons and their multiple environments” – (Campbell R & Dworkin E & Cabral G, 2011, p.3)
                            2. Bronfenbrenner 1979 states that , “The ecology of human development lies at a point of convergence among the disciplines of the biological, psychological, and social sciences as they bear on the evolution of the individual in society” -(Bronfenbrenner, 1979, p.13)
                              1. The concept that development is influenced by the environment was already familiar according to Bronfenbrenner.
                                1. “The ecology of human development involves the scientific study of the progressive, mutual accommodation between an active growing human being and the changing properties of the immediate settings in which the developing person lives, as this process is affected by relations between these setting, and by the larger contexts in which the settings are embedded”-(Bronfenbrenner, 1979, p. 21)
                                  1. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory has clearly influenced criminology in relation to intimate partner violence and sexual assault. It has helped understand the reciprocal interactions between systems which influence development. Also, ecological theory has helped inform the more minute interactional attachment formation processes that occur between individuals.
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