Childhood: a developmental approach

Laura Vieira
Mind Map by Laura Vieira, updated more than 1 year ago
Laura Vieira
Created by Laura Vieira over 6 years ago
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childhood

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Childhood: a developmental approach
  1. The emergence of child development
    1. Itard's study of the wild boy of Aveyron - shows there are competing cultural beliefs regarding how a child learns and develops. Also, one of the first attempts to apply scientific principles and testing
      1. Developmental understanding of childhood is the pre-dominant way to study it - we instinctivally use age as a way to place our expectations of a child
      2. A new science of child study
        1. Charles Darwin - 'A biographical sketch of an infant' - detailed dairy about the development of his son William
          1. Scientific in approach which made impact on society and caused them to view children as scientifically interesting
          2. Dr Arnold Gesell - observed natural behaviour and recorded everything. Assembled a great bank of data detailing what we can expect from children at various ages
            1. Industrilisation and urbanisation further whetted the appetite for more scientific research as people were curious about the effects of such issues
              1. Compulsory educaction coming into force at the time also meant that teachers needed to be able to understand what they could expect from their pupils developmentally
                1. Newson and Newson 1970s identified that survival of the child is not the paramount matter now - we are in a position to consider the psychological needs now
                  1. Bowlby's theory of attachment - consider arguments against. I.e Is it a minority world creation? Attachments may happen differently in other cultures
          3. Stages of development
            1. Piaget (1896-1980)
              1. Interested in why children could master things a year later where they previously failed. Backed up Rousseaus vision of children having natural stages of development
                1. His stages of development have influenced how we think about children
                  1. Dasen (60s and 70s) found some evidence that these stages existed worldwide and that those subjected to European schooling reached them earlier
                    1. Friedrich Froebel (creator of Kindergarten) found that children learned through play in 1887
                      1. Plowden report on primary education in 1960s drew heavily on Piaget theory - used to assess pupils readiness to learn. The theory is still used today
                        1. Further studies have proven that the stages are not concrete - scientists carrying out variations of Piagets experiments found that sometimes younger children could reach stages quicker than previously thought - showing it is always down to the individual child
                2. Development in context
                  1. Lee Vygotsky (1896) argued that child development doesn't just happen inside the child it is linked to the context in which the child lives
                    1. His suggestion is that children aren't developing as naturally as we think and that thus we shape children's worlds and how they develop
                    2. Judy Dunn showed that children appear to be highly socially competent at home in everyday situations - raising questions about our beliefs in childhood innocence
                      1. They understood more than we thought - were able to make jokes/perform pretend roles/distinguish accidents from purposeful moves/become curious about how others feel ( are 2-3 year olds)
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