Consumption

Rui Che
Mind Map by Rui Che, updated more than 1 year ago
Rui Che
Created by Rui Che over 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Consumption, created by Rui Che on 05/24/2015.

Resource summary

Consumption
  1. 考题

    Annotations:

    •    Media consumption is always local. Discuss How relevant is the theory of cultural proximity to our understanding of the way audiences consume the media today? "Audiences tend to prefer programmes that are closet to their own cultural experience" (Staubhaar), Discuss.   
    1. 背景
      1. Asymmetrical flows

        Annotations:

        • -Overconcentration of production in small number of global/western corporations –Over-representation of Eurocentric/neoliberal/capitalist values in media products – values’ homogenization –Reproduction of products across media and spaces – content/format homogenization
        1. Global – Local Nexus

          Annotations:

          •   Lull 2007 ●     Unprecedented quality and diversity of media products 前所未有的质量和媒介产品的多样性 ●     Global flows increasingly diverse and complex, sometimes reversing patterns of cultural imperialism 全球流动增加了多样性和复杂性,有时候能够扭转文化帝国主义的模式 ●     Transnational migration challenges the one-way flow 跨国移民挑战了单向流动 ●     Piracy of media products represents 90 per-cents of exchanges 盗版占据九成市场 ●     No sign of local cultures’ retreat 本土文化未有消退迹象 ●     Outside influence ‘indigenized’/hybridized 外界施加的影响与本土化 ●     Global firms adopt strategies of localisation to attract consumers   国际企业采用本土化战略吸引受众
          1. Media consumption in a global context

            Annotations:

            • Diversification of mediated spaces in digital and satellite environments (Volkmer 2013) •Universalism/particularism continuum (Robertson 1992) •A dynamic political and a cultural space (Slade 2014) •Site of tension between hegemonic/counter-hegemonic voices (Abu-Lughod 2008) •The uneven global terrain of media production/representation/consumption (Waisborn 2004; Moran 2008)
            1. Global media, culture, and identity

              Annotations:

              •    ●     Global media and communications as channels for  and the transformation of identity (Vertovec, 2011)the flow of cultural phenomena ●     Complex transnational flows of media images and messages perhaps create the greatest disjunctures for diasporic populations, since in the electronic media in particular, the politics of desire and imagination are always in contest with the politics of heritage and nostalgia (Appadurai and Breckenridge, 1989). ●     The discourse of cultural specificity and difference, packaged for transnational consumption through global technologies, particularly through the medium of ‘microelectronic transnationalism’ represented by Internet (Spivak, 1989).   
              1. Cultural imperialism

                Annotations:

                •    The concept of cultural imperialism today best describes the sum of the processes by which a society is brought into the modern world system and how is dominating stratum is attracted, pressured, forced, and sometimes bribed into shaping social institutions to correspond to, or even promote, the value and structures of the dominating center of the system (Schiller, 1976)   
              2. media consumption end

                Annotations:

                •    The General Context where the Audience make their choices: audience preferences are indeed formed within the overall trend toward cultural proximity within both national and cultural-linguistic boundaries. However,as Iwabuchi (2002) points out, cultural proximity cannot be seen as an essential quality of culture or audience orientation, but rather a shifting phenomenon in dialectical relation to other cultural forces. Overall, audiences do tend to choose programs that are most culturally relevant or proximate. Second, this proximity tends to be defined by historical spaces of cultural and linguistic commonality. These tendencies are dynamic and relational: change over time; some broad across nations and supranational regions, some very localized; appeal to special groups’ taste(La Pastina & Straubhaar, 2005)   
                1. identity

                  Annotations:

                  • 消费的空间,即是身份的空间 Identity provides a way of understanding the interplay between our subjective experience of the world and the cultural and historical settings in which this fragile subjectivity is formed (Hall 1997) •Identities are not pure or stable but are the product of meetings and mixings – hybrid identities are the result of cultural exchanges and movement of cultures (Gilroy 1993)   ●     Global media and communications as channels for the flow of cultural phenomena and the transformation of identity (Vertovec, 2011)  
                  1. everyday life

                    Annotations:

                    • 日常生活作为一种反对霸权的space Everyday life as the ordinary site of contestation (Silverstone, 1994) There are neglected modes of participation in everyday life, and these forms of action offer points of entry into the dominant culture and power structure, by subverting it if necessary, and by appropriating it to other uses (Martín-Barbero, 1993).
                    1. Universality

                      Annotations:

                      • 媒介主题的普遍性 可以让受众产生基于文化的映射理解 ‘the universality, or primordiality, of some of the themes and formulae, which makes programmes psychologically accessible; the polyvalent or open potential of many of the stories, and thus their value as projective mechanisms and as material for negotiation and play in the families of man...’ (Katz and Liebes, 1990:5). ‘Melodrama builds on underlying oral structures, formulas and archetypes that can be shared by cultures’ (La Pastina and Straubhaar 2005: 275)
                      1. Cultural proximity

                        Annotations:

                        • 用于解释一些跨国的媒介产品如何被选择的因素
                        1. 定义

                          Annotations:

                          •    the theory of cultural proximity(Straubhaar, 1991): audiences will tend to choose to watch television programs that are closest, most proximate or most directly relevant to them in cultural and linguistic terms.   
                          1. 适用范围

                            Annotations:

                            • Cultural proximity can be shaped around common history, language and geographical proximity but it can also go beyond language to include history, religion, ethnicity (in some cases) and culture in several senses: shared identity, gestures and nonverbal communication… Geo-cultural markets are often centered to a geographic region…, but they have also been spread globally by colonization, slavery and migration (Straubhaar, 2002: 196).
                            1. audience reception

                              Annotations:

                              • The success or failure of a localized adaptation lies not in the process of remaking the show, but in the local audience’s process of recognition, identification, and appreciation (Moran 2009) Apart from successful corporate strategies for production, distribution, and marketing, the international circulation of Yo soy Betty, la fea is largely related to the universal themes and culturally adaptable characteristics of the Betty format (Adrians and Biltereyst 2011).
                              1. 三种类型的案例
                                1. 相似的剧情

                                  Annotations:

                                  • The case study of Noor (Akkad, 2008).
                                  1. regional and global politics
                                    1. identity struggles

                                      Annotations:

                                      • Tradition meets modernity
                                      1. Morality as a battleground

                                        Annotations:

                                        • (Silverstone 2006) 论述了文化冲突现象 PPT p20
                                      2. Third space
                                        1. Larkin的reading

                                          Annotations:

                                          • Indian film offers a “third space” for Hausa audiences that mediates between the reified poles of Hausa Islamic tradition and western modernity (a false dichotomy to be sure, but one that remains deeply meaningful to people’s political consciousness (Larkin, 2003: 172)
                                          1. modernity
                                            1. the global flow of Indian films
                                              1. cultural production of diaspora

                                                Annotations:

                                                • the tropes of loss nostalgia and pastness
                                                1. non-Indian audience

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • In Nigeria, Indian films offer ways of being modern and traditional that create a template for exploring the tensions of postcoloniality 这样的post colonial identity could be fasioned, critiqued and debated
                                                2. Nigeria video films
                                                  1. national cinemas

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • national state can be the definer and defender of cultural values
                                                    1. video industry

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • driven largely by commercial rather than political motivation
                                                      1. Yoruba, English and Hausa
                                                      2. Indian films and Hausa viewers

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • Indian films provide Hausa youth with an alternative style of sexual interaction, a different pattern of speech and bodily affect between the sexes
                                                        1. In sa so da Kauna
                                                  2. Pastina和Straubhaar的reading

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • This article argues that audience preferences are formed within the overall trend toward cultural proximity within both national and cultural-linguistic boundaries. However, within this logic of cultural proximity, other forces also apply. It is important to understand cultural proximity working not only at the national and supranational levels but also at the subnational and regional spheres.
                                                    1. genre proximity

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • Rafael Obregon (1995) discussed the idea of genre proximity, emphasizing the common structure of melodrama that covers many cultures. Melodrama builds on underlying oral structures, formulas and archetypes that can be shared by cultures. Genres and subgenres can exert attractions to specific audiences that across and even contradict the overall logic of cutural proximity.
                                                      1. 1st local or national

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • the nation-state is still the dominant locus of market definition
                                                        1. 2nd program from US

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • the strong presence of US cultural products in so many media over the years has created a sense of familiarity or proximity with them
                                                          1. 3rd desired proximity with modernity

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • 日本对东亚的文化输出
                                                          2. historical experience

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • 殖民背景与拉美文化共融
                                                        2. modernity
                                                          1. national &cultural-linguistic market

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            •    “Audiences share the same or similar languages as well as intertwined histories and overlapping cultural characteristics. They share colonial legacies, independence movements, struggles against foreign hegemony, development challenges and the like have knit together a region where similarities extend beyond the languages spoken” (Wilkinson, 1995: viii, 52).  The audience’s second preference is usually for television programs produced within similar cultures, usually within a cultural-linguistic market defined by historical, ethnic, religious, linguistic, geographical and other similarities(Sinclair, 1996; Wilkinson, 1995).   
                                                            1. Pastina和Straubhaar的reading
                                                              1. audience' preference

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • Their first preference would tend to be for material produced within their own language and local or national culture the audience’s second preference is usually for television programs produced within similar cultures, usually within a cultural-linguistic market defined by historical, ethnic, religious, linguistic, geographical and other similarities (Sinclair, 1996; Wilkinson, 1995).
                                                                1. multilayers of cultural proximity
                                                                  1. different level

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • 人的定义比较复杂 所以接近也有很多层面 geographic or spatial: local, subnational regional, national, supranational regional, global cultural or linguistic移民为例 religious, ethnic or diasporic gender related
                                                                    1. locality

                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                      •    Much of one’s cultural identity continues to be local or linked to a subnational region. These definitions of locality and local identity are complex and subject to ongoing redefinition in the interaction of global, national and local forces (Iwabuchi, 2002)   
                                                                    2. audience identity
                                                                      1. layers

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        • 作者指出巴西易于形成subnational identity a set of identities based on space and place: local, regional, national and global. The experience of locality is bound up with other layers of identity, such as ethnicity or language/culture. National identity is the primary one.   
                                                                        1. Cultural Identities

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          •    1.   shared language(similar language);shared history or geographic proximities   
                                                                          1. New layer of identity

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            •    1.   above locality, and in some cases above subnational cultural-linguistic communities, supplementing but not necessarily reducing those older layers. The creation of national borders and identities did not completely reduce existing supranational cultural-linguistic communities and identities.   
                                                                          2. related proximity
                                                                            1. cultural shareability

                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                              •    successfully exported television programs often share a language (Singhal et al., 1994), shareability also refers to common values, images, archetypes and themes across cultures that permit programs to flow across cultural boundaries (Singhal and Udornpim, 1997)   
                                                                              1. others

                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                • 1.First, there are material and structural limits at the production level 2.there are structural barriers of income or economic capital at the individual reception level Third, there are less tangible barriers of cultural capital 可以联系Mosco关于class的叙述 Class: application of structuration theory to media, sees social class as a factor limiting access to media in many parts of the world (Mosco,1996)
                                                                                1. capital

                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                  •     human agency is not all-powerful, but rather coexists in precarious balance with other powerful societal structures such as economic and social institutions(Giddens,1984). Cultural capital (Bourdieu, 1984) is used here to sum up a series of identifiable factors that people tend to use when deciding what they want to watch on television and how they interpret what they watch. (humor, gender images, dress, style, lifestyle, knowledge about other lifestyles, ethnic types, religion and values……)   
                                                                              2. 研究对象与结果
                                                                                1. Marimar in Brazil

                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                  • 呈现了一种观众所认可的肥皂剧的方式 但是又没有伤及传统
                                                                                  1. Terra Nostra in Italy
                                                                                    1. 结论

                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                      • the concept of cultural proximity needs to be discussed in terms of shared local values and historical alliances between the original culture of the text and the local culture.
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