Computer Software

Mind Map by lisawinkler10, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by lisawinkler10 over 6 years ago


GCSE Computing Mind Map on Computer Software, created by lisawinkler10 on 05/31/2015.

Resource summary

Computer Software
  1. Refers to the programs we run on our computer - the programs are the stored sets of instructions given to the processor to carry out. It also refers to the data that is used by the proograms
    1. Types
      1. Utility Software
        1. Has limited functionality and is used to maintain computer systems
        2. Application Software
          1. Handles real-world jobs that users want to do
          2. System Software
            1. Operating System
              1. Functions
                1. Memory Management
                  1. The OS manages the transfer of data between the CPU, RAM and main storage
                  2. User Interface
                    1. The OS provides the user with a way of controlling the functions of the computer without resorting to machine code
                      1. Command line interface (CLI) e.g. MSDOS. Commands can be grouped into shell scripts to carry out maintenance jobs
                        1. Graphical (GUI) e.g. Windows. Uses icons to represent actions. No commands have to be learned.
                        2. Acts as a boundary between human and machine
                          1. The interface lets users give commands, ask questions and display a response
                          2. Peripheral Management
                            1. The OS manages the input and output devices connected to the computer, like a keyboard, mouse and printer
                            2. Multi-tasking
                              1. The OS allows more than one program to be run at once so users can switch between applications easily
                              2. Security
                                1. The OS provides security features to restrict access to the system or particular files
                            3. Controls hardware and acts an an intermediary between application and hardware (hides complexities and allows user to operate computer without writing programs
                          3. Utility Programs
                            1. Security
                              1. Anti-virus
                                1. Detects and protects the computer against virus threats and quarantines infected files
                                2. Firewall
                                  1. Restrict communication in and out of the computer from the applications that are running
                                  2. Spyware protection
                                    1. Detects and removes spyware (small programs that quietly monitor what you are doing)
                                  3. Disk Operations
                                    1. Formatting
                                      1. Sets up a hard drive, memory stick or card into a format that the computer can use to store/retrieve data. the process of formatting erases any data that was previously on the storage medium
                                      2. File transfer
                                        1. Allows movement of files from one location to another, either locally or via memory stick
                                        2. Defragmentation
                                          1. Re-organises the data on the hard drive to improve read/write access time
                                        3. System Maintenance
                                          1. System info and diagnosis
                                            1. Provides information about the system in order to help with diagnosis of problem
                                            2. System cleanup tools
                                              1. Removes temporary files and compresses/archives unused files to increase free storage
                                              2. Automatic updating
                                                1. Uses the Internet to check the OS is up-to-date and applies software patches/fixes as necessary
                                            3. Software Procurement
                                              1. Proprietary
                                                1. Written by developers and allowed to be used by others but with restrictions e.g. can't adapt software (source code is hidden)
                                                  1. Extensively tested, updates are scheduled regularly, reliable, someone to go to if problem
                                                    1. Source code cannot be inspected so may contain spyware within the software, expensive, inflexible, deliberate incompatibilities to lock users in
                                                2. Off the shelf
                                                  1. Developed by a software company to be sold to the general public
                                                    1. Cheaper than developing it yourself, tech support available, extensively tested, ready, forums online
                                                      1. Inflexible so customisation (not exact needs), search for traning
                                                  2. Open Source
                                                    1. Written by general public for everyone to use. Source code provided so software can be tweaked
                                                      1. Allows anyone to use/adopt the software to meet their needs and a collaborative approach to development can lead to better quality software, and cheap
                                                        1. By making source code available to all, provides opportunity for people to take advantage of software installed on users' computers compromising security, no or irregular updates,
                                                    2. Custom Written
                                                      1. Developed specifically for a particular organisation. Specially commissioned for a particular customer.
                                                        1. Meets exact purposes, doesn't require adaptations, the developer can train, be contacted, and maintain
                                                          1. Expensive, needs technical expertise to develop, not extensively tested, time-consuming
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