Galapagos Islands

katherine.crick
Mind Map by katherine.crick, updated more than 1 year ago
katherine.crick
Created by katherine.crick over 6 years ago
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Description

AS Level Geography (A2 Ecosystems) Mind Map on Galapagos Islands, created by katherine.crick on 06/01/2015.

Resource summary

Galapagos Islands
  1. Background
    1. in the Pacific Ocean: 1,000km from the South American continent
      1. 13 major islands, 6 smaller and hundreds of islets
        1. over 12,000 humans inhabit the islands
          1. holds over 1,300 unique species
          2. formed by seismic activity- led to the creation of unusual species
            1. a stationary hot spot created a chain of volcanoes when the Nazca plate moved like a conveyor belt
          3. Threats/ Issues
            1. Tourism
              1. the number of annual visitors has increased rapidly: 12,000 to 160,000 since 1978
                1. increased demand for more resources puts stress on the environment
                  1. increased transport around the islands erodes and disturbs habitats- the pollution created also has a negative effect on land and in sea from boats
                2. Poaching/ illegal fishing
                  1. can lead to the destruction of ecosystems and wildlife due to exploitation of resources, e.g. food, materials
                    1. the hunting of species places them under threat of extinction, which would change the entire food web and affect many ecosystems
                    2. Invasive species
                      1. approx. 543 alien insects have intruded on the islands
                        1. (including fire ants and wasps)
                          1. caused serious issues for both humans and the animal species native to the islands
                        2. Increasing population
                          1. the increasing human population places pressure on natural resources
                            1. exploitation of resources affects biodiversity and sustainabiity
                        3. Management/ Solutions
                          1. limited number of tourists allowed to visit each year
                            1. contains the amount of destruction and transport, etc to minimise the impact on the environment
                              1. a restriction was also placed on the amount of boats allowed to pass around and to the islands
                                1. this reduces the damage that can be created by disturbing marine life and pollution created
                                  1. the number, size and location of the boats has been restricted
                                2. Invasive Species Fund
                                  1. a £10 million fund
                                    1. means that the spread of invasive species can be prevented using methods and materials funded by the money
                                  2. Project Pinta
                                    1. aims to introduce species of reproductive tortoises
                                      1. to restore the environmental balance in the islands and prevent extinction
                                    2. SICGAL (Galapagos Inspection and Quarantine System)
                                      1. in the 1990s, they started inspecting boats and cargo ships for invasive species
                                        1. this occurred to attempt to reduce the number of invasive species, especially insects, from travelling the islands from abroad and impacting the native wildlife
                                      2. Galapagos Conservancy's Ecosystem Restoration
                                        1. set up management strategies to uphold the sustainability of the islands
                                          1. work alongside the Charles Darwin Foundation and local non-profit organisations
                                            1. seeks to rebuild healthy and balanced plant and animal environments to their 'pre-human' condition
                                        2. Conservation
                                          1. inspired Darwin's theory of evolution after he visited in 1835
                                            1. declared one of the World's first Heritage sites in 1978
                                            2. Climate
                                              1. temperatures range from 21C to 30C
                                                1. warm wet season: Jan-June
                                                  1. cool dry season: Jul-Dec
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