Electric potential energy per unit charge, measured in joules per Coulomb (volts).
It is the difference in charge between two points
Equation: Electric Current = Voltage divided by Resistance
Polarization
The process of transforming unpolarized light into polarized light.
Polarization is usually used in sunglasses and is beneficial for blocking out the glare of shiny things.
Polaroid filters are made of a special material that is capable of blocking one of the two planes of vibration of an electromagnetic wave.
Simple Harmonic Motion
Mass on a spring when it is subject to the linear elastic restoring force given by Hooke's Law.
Equation: (Hooke’s Law) Force = -Spring Constant x Displacement of the Spring
Drivien Harmonic Motion
It is when the amplitude of the oscillation is forced to increase.
Forced applied to this must be at the right frequency, the natural frequency.
Damped Harmonic Motion
It is when the amplitude of the oscillation decreases due to an outside force
It decays exponentially
An example of this could be found in the springs of your bed when weight is put on it.
Sound
A mechanical wave that is created by a vibrating object.
Sound waves travel in longitudinal waves that are parallel to the direction of energy transport.
They need a medium to travel through.
Capacitors
An electrical device for storing charge.
It is made from two or more plates of conducting material separated by a layer or layers of insulators.
A capacitor can store energy to be given to a circuit when needed.
Equation: Capacitance = Charge divided by potential difference.
Wave Behaviors
Reflection is when a wave hits a boundary and bounces back.
Refraction is when a wave passes into another medium causing a change in speed and direction of the wave.
Diffraction is when a wave hits an obstacle or a whole and spreads around the edge.
Interference is when two or more waves try to pass through the same place at the same time.
Diverging Lens
A lens that diverges rays of light that are traveling parallel to its axis.
They are thin across their middle and thick at their upper and lower edges.
This type of lens is used for people who cannot see clearly when they are far away from something.
Converging Lens
A lens that converges rays of light that are traveling parallel to its axis.
Converging lenses are thick across their middle and thin at their upper and lower edges.
This type of lens is used for people who cannot see up close, but can see far away easily.
First Semester
Newton's Law of Motion
First Law: Every object in a state of motion tends to stay in motion unless an external force is applied to it. Galileo’s Law of Inertia. Example: Ball stops rolling because of friction.
Second Law: The direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector. Equation: Force= Mass x Acceleration.
Third Law: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Example: If you push in one direction off of a wall while sitting in a rolling chair, the chair will then move in the opposite direction.
Scientific Method
• Purpose: State the problem.
• Research: Find out about the topic.
• Hypothesis: Predict the outcome to the problem.
• Experiment: Develop a procedure to test the hypothesis.
• Analysis: Record the results of the experiment.
• Conclusion: Compare the hypothesis to the experiment’s conclusion.
Vectors
A quantity that is fully described by both magnitude and direction.
Examples: displacement, velocity, acceleration, momentum and force.
The length of the arrow is proportionate to the magnitude of the vector and the direction is shown by which way the arrow points.
Kinetic Energy
The energy of motion. There are many forms of kinetic energy: vibrational, rotational, and translational.
Equation: Kinetic Energy= ½ Mass x Velocity squared
Kinetic energy is a scalar quantity because it does not have a direction
Potential Energy
The energy of position.
Equation: Potential Energy = Mass x Gravity x Height
Spring Equation: Potential Energy = ½ x Spring Constant x Amount of Compression Squared
More massive objects have greater gravitational potential energy.
Work
The amount of energy transferred by force acting through a distance.
The units of work are in Newton Meters or Joules.
Equation: Work = Force x Distance
Work can be calculated horizontally, at an angle, UCM, or on an inclined plane.
Velocity
A vector quantity that refers to "the rate at which an object changes its position."
Equation: Velocity Squared = Initial Velocity Squared + 2(Acceleration x Distance)
Equation: Velocity = Initial Velocity + Acceleration x Time
Equation: Velocity = Distance divided by Time
Power
The rate at which work is done or energy is transformed.
The higher the power, the faster work can be done.
Units for power are in Newton Meter per Second or Watts.
Equation: Power = Work divided by Time
Horizontal Projection
The vertical velocity increases with time like with a free-falling body.
The horizontal velocity is constant.
Momentum
It is the mass in motion.
Measured in Kilogram Meters per Second.
If an object is in motion, then it has momentum.