Errors and Mistakes

Esther12
Mind Map by Esther12, updated more than 1 year ago
Esther12
Created by Esther12 about 5 years ago
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Errors and Mistakes
1 Error
1.1 Definition: A deficiency in linguistic knowledge.
2 Mistakes
2.1 Mainly a problem of information retrieval, students know the correct grammar structure, the correct word, pronunciation. You don´t recall it at the moment when you need to.
3 Source of errors
3.1 Interlingual
3.1.1 The learne´s first language interferes with production of the second language.
3.2 Intralingual
3.2.1 The learner learns a rule in the second language, but either over generalizes it or applies it incorrectly.
3.3 Simplification
3.3.1 Also knows as redundancy reduction.
3.4 Induced
3.4.1 Results from inssuficient or incorrect explication
3.5 Environmental
3.5.1 Variations in students´environment
4 Areas of error
4.1 Structure
4.1.1 Syntax, phonology, phonetics, and morphology.
4.1.1.1 Can cloud the intended meaning of the message.
4.2 Lexicon
4.2.1 Word choice
4.3 Writing structure
4.3.1 Not using English conventions in punctuation or capitalization.
4.4 Discourse
4.4.1 The appropriateness of language in a given situation
5 Techniques
5.1 Self correction
5.1.1 Students correct their own errors.
5.2 Pinpointing
5.2.1 The teacher`s localizing an error without giving it away.
5.3 Rephrasing questions
5.3.1 Suggest rephrasing the question in order to reduce the number of words.
5.4 Cueing
5.4.1 When the teacher gives the grammatical variation of a key content word
5.5 Generating simple sentences
5.5.1 Like rephrasing the questions
5.6 Explain key words
5.6.1 This can be done by writiing a difficult word in the board or by actigin it out
5.7 Questioning
5.7.1 If the uses a word that the teacher does not understand, the teacher should ask a question about it.
5.8 Repetition
5.8.1 Repeat the error containing the error
5.9 Grammatical terms
5.9.1 Localizing an error by mentioning what function it plays in the sentence can be limited used.
5.10 Gestures
5.10.1 Errors can be corrected nonverbally.
5.10.1.1 Yes/ No
5.10.1.1.1 Nodding or shaking the head will get a student to continue or stop an utterance
5.10.1.2 Stop
5.10.1.2.1 Holding the palms toward a student will stop an unwanted interrumtion
5.10.1.3 Syntax
5.10.1.3.1 Flipping one hand over the other will let a student know that the word order is wrong.
5.10.1.4 Number
5.10.1.4.1 Singular can be indicated with one finger.
5.10.1.5 Stress
5.10.1.5.1 It is a nonverbal way to indicate which syllable of a word carries the stress.
5.10.1.6 Elison
5.10.1.6.1 The teacher puts the palms parallel to each othe and then moves them closer together in a pushing motion.
5.10.1.7 Missing word
5.10.1.7.1 A gesture to show that the student has left a word out.
5.10.1.8 Tense
5.10.1.8.1 A gesture of the hand ca indicate that a sentence should be in the past or in the future.
5.10.1.9 Grammatical terms plus gestures
5.10.1.9.1 Localizing an error by mentioning what function it plays in the sentence can havelimited use.
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