Defending North America

YunJae Min
Mind Map by YunJae Min, updated more than 1 year ago
YunJae Min
Created by YunJae Min about 6 years ago


ASSIGNMENT 3.1: Defending North America - Choices for Canada

Resource summary

Defending North America
  1. Canada's Acceptance of Nuclear Weapons in 1963
    1. For
      1. Lester B. Pearson, the leader of the Liberals, declared his support of acquiring nuclear weapons in order to meet the obligations of Canada’s NATO and NORAD agreements.
        1. According to Minister of National Defence Douglas Harkness, “it was unreasonable to secure the Bomarc without the nuclear warhead.” He though that nuclear weapons were crucial in protecting Canada from communist attacks.
          1. Many business leaders and newspapers feared that not cooperating with the United States would damage US-Canada relations in trade and investment.
            1. Canada’s acceptance of nuclear weapons assured voters that it would improve the country’s relations with the United States.
              1. Canadian strategist R.J. Sutherland argued that if Canada did not accept nuclear weapons, it would be breaking commitments that it had made to its allies, and would thus lose influence with them
              2. Against
                1. Canada had the right to decide for itself on international matters and not always follow the United Startes' footsteps.
                  1. Many Canadian citizens thought objected to the use of nuclear weapons. In fact, Diefenbaker received many letters and petitions from citizens about the issue.
                    1. The Minister of Foreign Affairs, Howard Green, felt that Canada should be a non-nuclear nation because If Canada uses nuclear missiles, its defense plan would be inconsistent with its foreign policy.
                      1. The more countries accepted nuclear weapons, the more likely was the outcome of a nuclear war, which some thought would destroy civilization.
                        1. Canada's Prime Minister Diefenbaker and US president Kennedy were not having good relations at the time.
                      2. The Scrapping of the Avro Arrow
                        1. For
                          1. Canada could not afford the costs of the airplane. One aircraft costed $12.5 million.
                            1. According to "History of the Canadian Peoples", no one, not even the Canadian Air Force, wanted to buy it.
                              1. The Arrow cost six times more to produce than the American interceptor aircraft.
                                1. The Arrow cost six times more to produce than its American counterpart.
                                2. Against
                                  1. Test flights of the Arrow showed that the plane could be the world's fastest and most advanced interceptor. Canada lost an opportunity to establish itself as a technological leader.
                                    1. The scrapping of the Avro Arrow put Avro out of business and ended the company.
                                      1. At the time, we were in the top three of the largest aircraft producers in the world, but the cancellation of the Arrow devastated the Canadian aerospace industry.
                                        1. Fifteen thousand people lost their jobs at Avro, and like a chain reaction, many more people outside of the company lost their jobs too.
                                          1. Prime Minister John Diefenbaker and his ministers simply hated the project because it was initiated by the Liberals.
                                        2. Canada's Role in the Cuban Missile Crisis
                                          1. For
                                            1. By refusing to alert Canada's NORAD forces or to allow US planes land on Canadian bases, Diefenbaker wanted to defend Canada's independence.
                                              1. Canada's Prime Minister Diefenbaker and US president Kennedy were not having good relations at the time.
                                                1. The United States had no proof on what was happening in Cuba other than photographs. It is understandable that Diefenbaker wanted more direct proof.
                                                  1. Diefenbaker did not want Canada to be drawn into a major conflict that seemed mainly US-based in policy and interest.
                                                    1. The Canadian government was also concerned that placing its military on alert might provoke the Soviet Union.
                                                    2. Against
                                                      1. After Diefenbaker made his decision, a poll showed that 80% of Canadians disagreed with his choice because many Canadians were beginning to favor nuclear weapons in Canada.
                                                        1. It damaged US-Canada relations.
                                                          1. Canada ended up readying Canadian forces anyway, so Diefenbaker could have followed Kennedy's wishes earlier and avoid some of the consequences he had to face.
                                                            1. As in other events, Diefenbaker’s judgment was clouded by his personal loathing of Kennedy.
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