process of how carbon moves from the environment through living things and then goes back out to the environment. EX. Plants take carbon from atmosphere through photosynthesis
Fossil fuels are decaying organic matter that have stored carbon for millions of years. When you burn them, and excessive amount of carbon dioxide is released into the environment.
Industry, agriculture, & community waste
to global climate change
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC)
Created in 1988 by Meterological Association & the UN Environment Programme. It is in place to assess science of climate change in order to understand its potential impacts and consider what might be done to prevent or manage those impacts
3 Basic climate-related changes
Global surface temperature rose by approx. 0.74 degrees C from 1906 to 2005, warmest years are most recent. Figures reflect rising temperatures of both air near Earth's surface and near-surface ocean waters.
Worldwide decline since mid-1960s in area covered by snow and glaciers
Average rise of sea levels, almost 3 inches from 1961 through 2003
Impacts due to rising sea levels
Includes: coastal erosion, conversion of coastal marshes to open water, intrusion of saltwater into coastal aquifiers
Increase range of major disease vectors and diseases
increase in waterborne & foodborne illnesses w/ increased temperatures
If geographic shifts in temperature happen, then corresponding shifts will occur in the regions where specific crops thrive, may affect diet and nutrition
Rising sea levels will inundate low-lying coastal regions
affects food supplies, disrupt breeding ground for marine life, claim agricultural land, affect drinking water supplies, loss of habitatual land
More frequent extreme weather events
crop failures, human deaths, physical injuries and hunger, rise in infectious diseases, loss of habitats
committee to establish the core principles which international action on climate change would move forward
Developed countries to ratify
Agreement made for specific reductions of emissions of greenhouse gases in period of 2008-2012.
Regulation of Air Pollution from burning Fossil Fuels
Clean Air Act (1970)
2 aspects of air pollution can be assessed
concentrations in ambient air
criteria air pollutants
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
Air Quality Index
emissions from sources
National Emission Standards for HAPS/stationary sources
regulation of mobile sources ex. cars and trucks
rule for new power plants to limit carbon dioxide emissions
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
Created in 1970, it requires all federal agencies to evaluate and disclose environmental impacts of their proposed actions before decisions are made or actions taken
environmental impact statement (EIS)
Ozone Depleting Chemicals
chlorine-containing gases are released into the air. They accumulate in the troposphere and over time are transported by air movements to the stratosphere. The reactive chlorine upsets the natural balance of stratosphere = net loss of ozone. Then transported back to troposphere by precipitation.
region in which ozone concentrations are dramatically lower than elsewhere
play minor role in ozone depletion because it lasts over long periods of time. Also a minor greenhouse gas.