Global Climate Change

sydney.cabioc
Mind Map by sydney.cabioc, updated more than 1 year ago
sydney.cabioc
Created by sydney.cabioc about 6 years ago
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Global Climate Change study guide

Resource summary

Global Climate Change
  1. Greenhouse Gases
    1. Carbon Dioxide
      1. Global Carbon Cycle

        Annotations:

        • process of how carbon moves from the environment through living things and then goes back out to the environment. EX. Plants take carbon from atmosphere through photosynthesis
        1. fossil fuels

          Annotations:

          • Fossil fuels are decaying organic matter that have stored carbon for millions of years. When you burn them, and excessive amount of carbon dioxide is released into the environment. 
      2. Industry, agriculture, & community waste
        1. Methane
          1. halocarbons
            1. Nitrous oxide
          2. Environmental Impact
            1. Global Warming
              1. to global climate change
              2. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC)

                Annotations:

                • Created in 1988 by Meterological Association & the UN Environment Programme. It is in place to assess science of climate change in order to understand its potential impacts and consider what might be done to prevent or manage those impacts
                1. 3 Basic climate-related changes

                  Annotations:

                  • Global surface temperature rose by approx. 0.74 degrees C from 1906 to 2005, warmest years are most recent. Figures reflect rising temperatures of both air near Earth's surface and near-surface ocean waters.
                  • Worldwide decline since mid-1960s in area covered by snow and glaciers
                  • Average rise of sea levels, almost 3 inches from 1961 through 2003
                2. Impacts due to rising sea levels

                  Annotations:

                  • Includes: coastal erosion, conversion of coastal marshes to open water, intrusion of saltwater into coastal aquifiers
                3. Health Impact
                  1. Increase range of major disease vectors and diseases
                    1. Mosquitoes
                      1. malaria
                      2. increase in waterborne & foodborne illnesses w/ increased temperatures

                        Annotations:

                        • If geographic shifts in temperature happen, then corresponding shifts will occur in the regions where specific crops thrive, may affect diet and nutrition
                        1. Rising sea levels will inundate low-lying coastal regions

                          Annotations:

                          • affects food supplies, disrupt breeding ground for marine life, claim agricultural land, affect drinking water supplies, loss of habitatual land
                          1. More frequent extreme weather events

                            Annotations:

                            • crop failures, human deaths, physical injuries and hunger, rise in infectious diseases, loss of habitats
                          2. Kyoto Protocol

                            Annotations:

                            • committee to establish the core principles which international action on climate change would move forward
                            1. Developed countries to ratify

                              Annotations:

                              • Agreement made for specific reductions of emissions of greenhouse gases in period of 2008-2012.
                            2. Regulation of Air Pollution from burning Fossil Fuels
                              1. Clean Air Act (1970)
                                1. 2 aspects of air pollution can be assessed
                                  1. concentrations in ambient air
                                    1. criteria air pollutants
                                      1. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
                                      2. Air Quality Index
                                      3. emissions from sources
                                        1. National Emission Standards for HAPS/stationary sources
                                          1. regulation of mobile sources ex. cars and trucks
                                            1. rule for new power plants to limit carbon dioxide emissions
                                          2. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)

                                            Annotations:

                                            • Created in 1970, it requires all federal agencies to evaluate and disclose environmental impacts of their proposed actions before decisions are made or actions taken
                                            1. environmental impact statement (EIS)
                                        2. Ozone Depleting Chemicals
                                          1. Chlorine

                                            Annotations:

                                            • chlorine-containing gases are released into the air. They accumulate in the troposphere and over time are transported by air movements to the stratosphere. The reactive chlorine upsets the natural balance of stratosphere  = net loss of ozone. Then transported back to troposphere by precipitation.
                                            1. ozone hole

                                              Annotations:

                                              • region in which ozone concentrations are dramatically lower than elsewhere
                                            2. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

                                              Annotations:

                                              • play minor role in ozone depletion because it lasts over long periods of time. Also a minor greenhouse gas.
                                              1. increased risk of skin cancer
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