Amber Basra
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

(Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology) Mind Map on Bone, created by Amber Basra on 11/02/2013.

Amber Basra
Created by Amber Basra almost 6 years ago
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1 A highly vascular connective tissue made of specialised cells in a matrix composed of minerals, water and protein fibres.
2 2 types
2.1 Compact (dense)
2.1.1 Forms the surface layers of mature bones
2.1.2 found mainly in shafts of long bones (where strong, tubular structure is required)
2.1.3 consists of a no. of cylindrical structures called haversian systems (or osteons) which contain: a central haversian canal lamellae lacunae canaliculi interstitial lamellae circumferential lamellae Volkmann's canals periosteum
2.2 Cancellous (spongy)
2.2.1 found in parts of bone where lightness, strength and area are required
2.2.2 has trabeculae instead of osteons plates and bars of bones arranged in a haphazard manner organised to provide max strength follow lines of stress and can realign if direction of stress changes contain: lamellae, osteocytes, lacunae and canaliculi canaliculi connect to adjacent cavities instead of a central canal BONE MARROW found between trabeculae at birth it is red and produces cells in the blood e.g. RBCs, WBCs. in adults, red found in: upper femora, vertebrae, scapulae, sternum, clavicles, diploe of skull bones and hip bones. elsewhere, red becomes inactive yellow marrow
3 OSSIFICATION - Formation of bone from connective tissue and requires: adequate calcium and phosphate in blood and vitamins A, C and D.
3.1 influenced by hormones: parathormone, growth hormone, thyroxine and testosterone
3.2 intramembranous - takes place in a membrane
3.2.1 osteogenic fibres and bone cells appear in the connective tissue and calcium salts deposited to form osteoid tissue
3.2.2 ossification spreads from the centre outwards
3.3 intracartilaginous
3.3.1 process by which bone formation takes place e.g. in a long bone Primary centre of ossification - middle of diaphysis, osteoblast appear and calcium is laid down, osteoclasts remodel bone into required shape, bone is also being built up on outside of shaft to form periosteum Secondary centre of ossification - appears at end of bone to form epiphyses (which are separated from diaphysis by epiphyseal plate Growth - occurs during childhood by production of bone at epiphyseal plate nearest shaft - metaphysis. Fusion- of epiphysis with diaphysis occurs when bone reaches desired size (approx. 20 years)
4 Functions
4.1 Shape
4.2 Protection
4.3 Movement
4.4 Sound transduction
4.5 Production of RBCs- haematopoiesis
4.6 Mineral storage
4.7 Growth factor storage
4.8 Fat storage
5 Types of cells within bone
5.1 Osteogenic cell - found in inner layer of periosteum - develops into osteoblasts
5.2 Osteoblast - forms bone matrix
5.3 Osteocyte - mature bone cell which maintains bone tissue
5.4 Osteoclast - functions in bone resorption and remodelling
5.4.1 Bone tissue is maintained by a balance between the activity of osteoblasts that form bone and osteoclasts that break it down - remodelling
6.1 Periosteum has arteries which supply it and also enter the diaphysis through many perforating Volkmann's canals - this supplies the outer part of compact bone
6.1.1 A hole in compact bone (nutrient foramen) allows passage of nutrient artery into medullary cavity Divisions supply inner part of compact bone, spongy bone and red marrow nutrient arteries divide into ascending and descending branches in medullary cavity some bones have 1 nutrient artery (tibia) and some have several (femur) nerves also pass through same nutrient foramen
6.1.2 broken bones are very painful as periosteum is richly supplied with nerves

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