# Waves

Mind Map by Alfonzzzo R, updated more than 1 year ago
 Created by Alfonzzzo R about 6 years ago
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### Description

GCSE Physics Waves topic mindmap

## Resource summary

Waves
1. Types
1. Transverse
1. The oscillation is perpendicular to the energy transfer.
1. e.g. Light.
2. Longitudinal
1. The oscillation is parallel to the energy transfer.
1. e.g. Sound.
2. Electromagnetic
1. Can travel through anything (i.e. vacuums).
2. Mechanical
1. Requires matter to exist.
1. Wave Length
1. The distance between two equal points.
2. Amplitude
1. Represents the energy.
2. Hertz (Hz)
1. Waves per second (frequency)
3. Equations
1. Wave Speed = Frequency x Wave length
1. m/sec = Hz x m
2. Properties
1. Reflection
1. Angle of incidence = angle of reflection.
1. Refraction
1. Waves change direction when crossing between different media.
1. This is because the light ray enters the block earlier on one side meaning that this side slows.
1. Into higher densities, the light slows.
2. Diffraction
1. When the waves spread out after passing through a gap.
1. Perfect diffraction occurs when the gap is the same size as the wavelength.
1. This will produce a semicircular pattern.
2. Doppler Effect
1. When the sound source is moving away...
1. The pitch lowers.
1. The wavelength increases.
1. The frequency decreases.
1. When the sound source is moving closer...
1. The pitch rises.
1. The frequency increases.
1. The wavelength decreases.
1. Position alone has no impact.
2. Red-Shift
1. Light from distant stars/galaxies is shifted towards the red end of the spectrum due to a longer wavelength.
1. This shows that the star/galaxy is moving away.
1. The further away the star/galaxy is, the greater the red-shift.
2. Proves that the universe is expanding.

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