Types of technological fix

Jodie Goodacre
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

A-Levels Geography (The Technological Fix) Mind Map on Types of technological fix, created by Jodie Goodacre on 11/03/2013.

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Jodie Goodacre
Created by Jodie Goodacre almost 6 years ago
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Types of technological fix
1 Intermediate technology refers to relatively low, usually labour intensive technology that can be mastered by local people, especially in the developing world
1.1 The Sri Lankan pumpkin tank water storage system is a classic example of this
1.1.1 The pumpkin tank can also be classified as appropriate technology because it is appropriate to the level of income, skill and needs of the local population
2 Appropriate technology, however does not necessarily mean low-tech
3 For instance, both the freeplay wind-up radio and the XO-1 OLPC (one laptop per child) computer are examples of communication technology designed specifically for the developing world.
4 Top down - Organised and controlled by TNCs, central government and international organisations such as the World Bank
5 Bottom up - Organised by local groups and NGOs, with dialogue between the funder and the recipient, and the ability to adapt technology to local needs
6 High tech - Reliant on sophisticated systems, specialist skills and advanced materials
7 Low tech - Older, tried and tested technology which uses generic skills and can be mastered by local people
8 Capital and energy intensive - Technology which is powered and complex to produce and maintain
9 Labour intensive - Technology which relies on human (or animal) energy to build and run it
10 Freeplay wind-up radio
10.1 Around $40
10.2 Similiar lifeline radio is available for children in the developing world
10.3 Human powered
10.4 No pollution or energy costs
10.5 Integrated torch
10.6 Can be used to hear news, weather forecasts, hazard warnings and farm prices, and for education
10.7 Increases independence and access to critical information, especially in isolated rural areas
11 XO-1 One laptop per child computer
11.1 $188, although the aim is to lower this to $100
11.2 Specifically designed for the developing world
11.3 Minimal power consumption, and simple rugged design
11.4 Wireless mesh networking
11.5 Increases information flow and could be a powerful educator
11.6 Laptops are sold to governments, not individuals, and a power source is required
12 Megaprojects
12.1 Using small-scale technology can go some way in solving problems, but many nations have opted for large-scale megaprojects as the only way to industrialise and develop a high income, consumer economy
12.2 Most commonly, these are civil engineering projects which reflect a top-down approach
12.3 Individual citizens rarely have a say in their planning and construction and opponents argue that individual's rights are often abused
12.4 China's development is an example of the megaproject approach
13 China: Fixed on technology
13.1 China has a long history of innovation, including the invention of paper, porcelain,gunpowder, printing and the compass
13.2 The communist People's Republic of China has been transformed in the last few decades by impressive technological megaprojects
13.3 A desire to quickly modernise the Chinese economy
13.4 The vast scale of the economy
13.5 The fact that China's leaders are trained engineers
13.6 China's drive to modernise has reaped enormous gains in terms of annual GDP growth between 8% and 10%
13.7 Three Gorges Dam
13.7.1 $25 billion
13.7.2 1994-2011
13.7.3 Multi-purpose navigation hydropower and flood control scheme
13.7.4 Yangtze River
13.7.5 Increased pollution, as the river can no longer 'flush' itself
13.7.6 1,300 historic sites flooded
13.7.7 Up to 4 million people displaced
13.7.8 Several species, such as Chinese river dolphine and Siberian crane, are threatened and may become extinct
13.8 Green Wall
13.8.1 $8 billion
13.8.2 1978-2050
13.8.3 4,500km long
13.8.4 3 million hectare planted forest belt to prevent further spread of the Gobi desert
13.8.5 The desert increases in area by 3,500km squared each year
13.8.6 If it works, it will prevent annual $50 billion losses due to crop damage, soil erosion and dust storms
13.8.7 Food security will increase as farming will be more sustainable
13.8.8 Major doubts about whether the project can stop destification
13.8.9 Some land has been taken from herders to plant the tree belt
13.9 Shanghai Maglev
13.9.1 The world's first commercial magnetically levitating train, capable of 435km h-1 on a 30km track between Shanghai's CBD and its airport
13.9.2 $1.3 billion
13.9.3 2001-2004
13.9.4 Maglev trains are pollution free, although they use electricity
13.9.5 Significant international prestige when the Maglev opened
13.9.6 Protests in 2007 against an extension to the system were based on health concerns over electromagnetic radiation
13.10 South-North water transfer project
13.10.1 $62 billion
13.10.2 2002-2050
13.10.3 To divert up to 45 billion m cubed of water from the Yangtze River to the Yellow and Hai rivers for agricultural and industrial use
13.10.4 The project will displace 250,000+ people
13.10.5 Could damage biodiversity in the Yangtze drainage basin by lowering water levels
13.10.6 Promotes industrial development but also industrial pollution

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