Trends

No No
Mind Map by No No, updated more than 1 year ago
No No
Created by No No about 6 years ago
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Description

The trends of various bodily featurs from apes (red) to modern humans (green).

Resource summary

Trends
  1. Brain
    1. 400-500cm^3
      1. 1375cm^3 average
      2. Small cerebrum, few convolutions
        1. Large cerebrum, many convolutions, frontal, temporal and occipital lobes fuller
      3. Skull
        1. Bony nuchal and sagittal crests
          1. Smooth skul, nuchal area smaller
          2. Prominent brow ridge
            1. Brow ridge nonexistent
            2. Prognathic face
              1. Flatter face, tucked in below cranium
              2. Flared zygomatic bones
                1. Zygomatic bones swept back
                2. Top of cranium flat, no forehead
                  1. Vaulted cranium
                  2. Prominent postorbital constriction
                    1. No postorbital constriction
                    2. Foramen magnum to rear
                      1. At the centre of the BASE of the skull
                      2. No nasal bone
                        1. Nasal bone present
                      3. Dentition
                        1. Rectangular dental arcade
                          1. Shorter, parabolic dental arcade
                          2. Large protruding canines
                            1. Smaller, non protruding canines
                            2. Large incisors
                              1. Smaller, opposed incisors
                              2. Diastema in upper tooth row
                                1. No diastema
                                2. First premolars canine-like
                                  1. First premolars flatter
                                  2. Simian shelf reinforces lower jaw
                                    1. No simian shelf
                                    2. No chin
                                      1. Chin present
                                    3. Spine
                                      1. Large spinous processes on upper vertebrae for strong neck muscles
                                        1. Smaller spinous process on upper vertebrae as head is balanced on spine
                                        2. No lumbar curvature: C curve
                                          1. Lumbar curvature: S curve
                                        3. Pelvis
                                          1. Long and narrow
                                            1. Short, broad, bowl shaped
                                            2. At an angle to spine
                                              1. Aligned with spine, sloping back and down due to curve
                                              2. Gluteus maximus acts as abductor
                                                1. Gluteus maximus acts as extensor
                                              3. Legs
                                                1. Arms longer than legs
                                                  1. Arms similar length to legs
                                                  2. Short femur with small head
                                                    1. Longer femur, head enlarged and angled
                                                    2. No carrying angle
                                                      1. Carrying angle present
                                                      2. Weight of knee joint on both condyles
                                                        1. Weight on outer condyle
                                                      3. Feet
                                                        1. Smaller calcaneus
                                                          1. Robust calcaneus
                                                          2. Longitudinal arch
                                                            1. Longitudinal and transverse arches
                                                            2. Opposable big toe for grasping
                                                              1. Non opposable, robust, aligned with rest of toe
                                                            3. Hands
                                                              1. Fingers curved and long relative to thumb
                                                                1. Thumb relatively longer to straight fingers
                                                                2. Limited mobility of thumb
                                                                  1. Saddle joint in thumb gives greater mobility
                                                                  2. Precision grip limited
                                                                    1. Improved precision grip
                                                                  3. Body hair
                                                                    1. Long, coarse
                                                                      1. Short, fine- appear naked
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