P1

Lisa Cracknell
Mind Map by Lisa Cracknell, updated more than 1 year ago
Lisa Cracknell
Created by Lisa Cracknell about 6 years ago
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physics module one mind map

Resource summary

P1
  1. The solar system
    1. Centre= Sun
      1. Eight planets= MVEMJSUN
        1. Asteroids= irregular lumps or rock
          1. Comets= small objects of rock and ice (have elongated orbits around the sun.
            1. Dwarf planets= spherical lumps of rock
            2. The universe
              1. We can only see stars as they were in the past
                1. One light year= 9.5 million million km
                  1. Light travels through a vacuum at 300000 km/s
                2. Distance to stars
                  1. Brightness
                    1. Same real brightness doesn't = same relative brightness
                      1. Further away= smaller relative brightness
                        1. Negatives
                          1. Need to know the distance of one the stars
                            1. Only works if have same real brightness
                              1. Dust, rain, clouds, light pollution
                        2. Parallax
                          1. As earth orbits close stars move slightly against fixed background
                            1. However, can only be used of nearby stars
                        3. Expanding universe
                          1. Redshift
                            1. Redshift is the light coming from distant galaxies
                              1. As galaxies move away, the wavelength increases
                                1. Most galaxies appear to be moving away from us
                                  1. further away from earth a galaxy is, thefaster it is moving away from us
                          2. Fusion of elements in stars
                            1. Nuclear fusion= only at high densities and temp
                              1. hydrogen nuclei hit each other so hard= helium= lots of energy= nuclear fusion
                                1. This is how all chemical elements with atoms heavier than helium were made
                                  1. These elements spread through space when stars explode
                                    1. Stars end their lives as a supernova
                                      1. Massive explosion
                                        1. Where all the different chemical elements are made
                            2. The changing earth
                              1. breaks in earths crust= new volcanoes& mountains
                                1. Sediments crushed together= sedimentary rock (formed in seas)
                                  1. Collisions between different parts of the crust= mountains
                                    1. Rocks provide evidence for this
                              2. P1
                                1. The big bang
                                  1. detection of cosmic background radiation= evidence
                                    1. Sun= 5000 million years ago
                                    2. Earth= 4500 million years ago
                                      1. Universe expanded rapidly from single point 14000 million years ago
                                    3. Continental drift
                                      1. Alfred Wegener 1915
                                        1. Millions of year ago= one land mass
                                          1. Then it split into continents which drifted apart
                                            1. Continents move because they sit on mantle
                                              1. The rocks move slowly by convection currents
                                                1. Based on the way the all fit
                                                  1. And that similar fossils and rocks were found of continents now separated by oceans
                                        2. Oceanic ridges
                                          1. Form when sea spreads and liquid rock fills gap
                                            1. This rock is magnetised by earths field
                                              1. Each time earths field reverses, it is shown in the rock
                                                1. The seafloor increases by cm's/year= seafloor spreading
                                        3. Tectonic plates
                                          1. Volcanic mountains= one tectonic plate forced under another
                                            1. Earths crust has solid tectonic plates
                                              1. Meet at plate boundaries
                                                1. Fold mountains= when 2 tectonic plates meet head on
                                              2. Earthquakes form= when they slide past each other
                                            2. Seismic waves
                                              1. S-waves= move slowly through solid
                                                1. Can use these to work out the structure of the earth
                                                  1. Formed when two plates move suddenly
                                                    1. P-waves= move quickly through solids and liquids
                                                      1. seismometers record them
                                              2. Structure of the earth
                                                1. Mantle= solid rock
                                                  1. Outer core= liquid nickel and iron
                                                    1. Inner core= solid nickel and iron
                                                      1. Mantle= semi-liquid rock
                                                2. Waves
                                                  1. Transfers energy away from a vibrating sorce
                                                    1. Wavelength= distance between each peak
                                                      1. Wave speed= FxWL
                                                        1. Higher the frequency the shorter the wave length
                                                          1. Frequency= Number of vibrations in one second
                                                            1. Amplitude= maximum height of the wave
                                                              1. Unit of frequency is hertz (Hz)
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