Perspectives of learning

nilemon
Mind Map by nilemon, updated more than 1 year ago
nilemon
Created by nilemon over 4 years ago
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Perspectives of learning
1 Behaviour perspectives of learning
1.1 Behaviour perspectives focus on behaviours of the learners rather than mental states or cognitive learning
1.1.1 Behaviourist believes that learners start the learning behaviours without any other causes, and they will be shaped by punishment and reinforcement.
1.1.1.1 Operant Contioning
1.1.1.1.1 Key words:
1.1.1.1.1.1 positive (negative) reinforcement
1.1.1.1.1.2 punishment
1.1.1.1.1.3 reinforcement
1.1.1.1.2 Operant conditioning is a learning process that focuses on consequences of a behaviour, in order to increase or decrease the happening of a behaviour. This is achieved by giving reinforcement and punishment after a behaviour happened.
1.1.1.1.3 a student achieves an A* on his history exam. The teacher decide to give him less homework for the rest of the month (positive reinforcement). As a consequence, this student work harder and the other students in the class work harder too, in order to get less homework.
1.1.2 Behaviourism assumes that learning is a process of a learner responding to environmental stimuli
1.1.2.1 Classical Conditioning
1.1.2.1.1 Key words:
1.1.2.1.1.1 conditioned stimulus (response)
1.1.2.1.1.2 unconditioned stimulus (response)
1.1.2.1.1.3 neutral stimulus
1.1.2.1.1.4 Example: students always answer the questions that the teacher gives with raising their hands.
1.1.2.1.1.4.1 students are asked to raise their hands when they know the questions that the teachers give.
1.1.2.1.1.4.1.1 everytime the teacher asks some questions she asks students to raise their hands if they know
1.1.2.1.1.4.1.1.1 finally when the teacher asks some questions, the students will raise their hands rather than say it directly.
1.1.2.1.2 Classical conditioning is a is a learning process in which a response to a stimulus comes to be elicited in response to another neutral stimulus. This is achieved by showing both of the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus.
1.1.3 Behaviourist believes that learners start the learning behaviours without any other causes, and they will be shaped by punishment and reinforcement.
1.1.3.1 Programmed Learning
1.1.3.1.1 three elements:
1.1.3.1.1.1 1. information is given in small pieces
1.1.3.1.1.2 2. its self-paced by the learner
1.1.3.1.1.3 3. it provides immediate feedback
1.1.3.1.1.4 a mechanical machine
1.1.3.1.1.4.1 students punch answers on this machine to the simple questions.
1.1.3.1.1.4.1.1 if the answer is correct, the student will be positively reinforced, and go to the next frame.
1.1.3.1.1.4.1.2 if the answer is not correct, the student will immediately see the right answer
1.2 Strength: Behaviourism is based upon observable behaviours, so it is easier to quantify and collect data and information when conducting research.
1.3 Weakness: Many people argue that the behaviourist perspectives don't account other perspectives of learning. It will be reductionist.
2 Humanistic perspectives of learning
2.1 Humanist perspectives emphasised people's goodness, freedom to choose, and the desire to be better people
2.1.1 cooperative learning
2.1.1.1 learners are grouped into four (typically), to complete one goal and enhance a member's personal academic goal.
2.1.1.1.1 strength: goals are depended on performance and contribution of the members.
2.1.1.1.2 weakness: some students will waste time talking or doing other staff rather than finish their goals.
2.1.2 open classroom
2.1.2.1 a open classroom contains learners in different grades, in different levels of academic, to work together in a large room.
2.1.2.1.1 strength: learners can make friends with each others, and they can learn experience from other people.
2.1.2.1.2 weakness: if some people are not good at talking or complete goals with strangers, this method will be a waste of time.
2.1.3 learning circles
2.1.3.1 students are worked together to finish one goal in a group, can be done by making a competition between groups, but still students have to do their own assignments and homwwork.
2.1.3.1.1 strength: students will solve problems that they face and can not solve them when they are alone in a group together.
2.1.3.1.2 weakness: sometimes the studnets who achieve high level in academic will do most of the work or solve the question before other students.
2.1.4 Summer Hill School
2.1.4.1 a democratic school which was located in Britain. This school is the best living example of humanistic perspective of learning.
2.1.4.1.1 For teachers: students can attend your lessons if they want, it is not compulsory. Every teachers can make their own syllabus, but assignments should also be given to students.
2.1.4.1.2 For students: students don't need to attend all the lessons, they can choose what they are interested in. Democracy system is running in this school, students can vote for their lessons
2.1.4.1.3 strength: students are free to learn what they want.
2.1.4.1.4 weakness: the students' grades for the school will be lower than traditional schools.
2.2 Strength: theory takes a holistic approach to education and learning.
2.3 Weakness: many teachers are not trained enough to teach in this way.
3 Cognitive perspectives of learning
3.1 Cognitive perspectives is concerned with how we process, store, and retrieve information
3.1.1 Piaget's theory
3.1.1.1 In Piaget's theory, children learn from playing in the environment, and they are active in discovering the surroundings to makes sense of the world.
3.1.1.1.1 Four stages
3.1.1.1.1.1 1. sensorimotor (birth to 2)
3.1.1.1.1.2 2. prepperational (2-7
3.1.1.1.1.3 3. concrete operational (7-11)
3.1.1.1.1.4 4. formal operational (11+)
3.1.1.1.2 strength: Piaget's theory established a basic theory for cognitive perspectives of learning.
3.1.1.1.3 weakness: the theory didn't count for the influence of culture in development.
3.1.2 Bruner's theory (Discovery learning)
3.1.2.1 in Bruner's theory, learners are not given answers by the teachers but only tips. They are asked to find the answer themselves as a learning process.
3.1.2.1.1 Ex: 5+x=14 instead of 5+_=14
3.1.2.1.2 During these educative experiences, students build their understanding & use more cognitive strategies to solve that kinds of questions.
3.1.2.1.2.1 strength: this method is effective for self-motivated students.
3.1.2.1.2.2 weakness: can be difficult for the students that don't want to face challenges in study, and therefore they will have negative feelings.
3.1.3 Vygotsky's theory
3.1.3.1 Vygotsky believed that children can learn even they are in different ages. They need models to learn from them by watching their behaviours.
3.1.3.1.1 ZPD
3.1.3.1.1.1 An important principle of Vygotsky’s work. (the zone of proximal development)
3.1.3.1.1.1.1 The ZPD can be defined as the difference between what a child can achieve on their own in problem solving and what can be achieved with the help of an adult or peer
3.1.3.1.2 Scaffolding
3.1.3.1.2.1 Children who receive a good scaffolding performed better than those who don't receive scaffolding.
3.1.3.1.2.1.1 Tom is a 6- year-old boy. He see his other cleaning the table every night after they finish dinner, and one day his mother see that Tom is cleaning the table even he is not asked to do, and other kids in Tom's age don't have this behaviour.
3.1.3.2 strength: the idea of scaffolding provides a good way for teachers to teach their students without the traditional teaching.
3.1.3.3 weakness: there are students who are naughty and don't want to contribute to the group work when the teacher uses cooperative group work.
3.2 strength: it takes mental process into account, which is different with behaviourist perspectives.
3.3 weakness: it may not how immediate feedback of this perspective.
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