Education 1

karismazulkifli
Mind Map by karismazulkifli, updated more than 1 year ago
karismazulkifli
Created by karismazulkifli over 6 years ago
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Education summary

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Education 1
  1. Primary purpose --> develop human capital --> promotes social mobility
    1. Human capital: education --> knowledge and skills and to develop the human capital, some governments have invest resources on both academic and vocational training --> creating multiple pathways for learners. Government may also implement Compulsory Education (CE) --> parents send children to national school regularly. Widely-held notion (East Asian) --> economic sustainability linked to development of human capital. Education prepares workforce of the future with relevant skills --> promotes social mobility
      1. Social levelling: distruction of materisl differences between people --> equal opportunity for all regardless. Government --> reduce gap between HAVES and HAVE NOTS. = inclusive approach to social spending (early childhoos development, health care etc)
        1. $200-$240 edusave individuals// direct edusave to schools // Financial assistance //
          1. Problems: challenged by meritocratic system --> income gap widening // A lot money on tuition VS financially poorer families // DSA
        2. Social Mobility: is the movement in social position over time --> change in income.
          1. Upward social mobility: developed/ developing countries --> spectacular economic success --> focusing on rapid industrialization and levelling up human capital through formal schooling
            1. Singapore, SK, Vietnam, Rwanda
              1. Rwanda --> dubbed as "Singapore of Africa" --> top 3 performing countries reducing out-of school population (85%) and having the highest primary school enrolment in Africa (96.5%)
            2. NO upward social mobility: due to socio-economic status , gender, race. Researchers says --> lack middle-class capital & limited parental involvement --> lower academic achievement. Also being raised in lpw-income family --> fewer educational resources
              1. Singapore: reforms were done to reduce drop out rates in 1970s- 1980s --> promote equity
              2. Meritocrarcy: Rewards person according to what they do and achieve --> being fair. Dependent of academic grades and relevant skills = amt of effort invested. It is considered fair as it does not consider any other aspects (race, economic status etc.)
                1. Problems: Academic excellence= constant spotlight --> negative sense of elitism
                  1. Face od Education changing due to the inclusion of Integrated Programme (IP)
                    1. Education cost rising--> strain especially for the financially disdvantage as higher qualification/ different pathways = more money needed
                      1. JC $30-$40 (a month) // Poly $2.6k (a year)
              3. Students constantly pressured to strive for academic success --> academic qualification don't guarantee success in life
                1. Misplaced value of education
                  1. VALUE of education based on SPERM model.
                    1. SOCIAL: Education helps young people adjust to life in a community where there are social expectation and norms to follow// accustomed to communication and interaction --> maintain constructive and peaceful coexistence
                      1. PERSONAL: Provides space and guidance --> reach fullest potential (talent)
                        1. ECONOMIC: Prepares workforce of the future with relevant skills for the economy in the face of global competition
                          1. EDUCATION (INTELLECTUAL): Exposure to a range of subjects--> expand knowledge--> heightened awareness about world around them
                            1. MORAL: develops students to individuals with sound character and strong moral values
                      2. PRESSURE to excel--> value of education tends to overshadow its intellectual and moral benefits. Advanced nationa have tendency to invest in sudcation to equip students with practival skills for economic development. However good education and a degree may not necessarily secure one's future. Pressure to excel to the extent that some schools in Singapore offer subjects based on how easy it is for the students to score --> O'levels pure Literature decrease when in 1990s school ranking started. This also resulted to an unhealthy and competitive school environment where students are obsessed over academic results ( paper chase) resulted in question spotting etc
                        1. PRESSURE FROM SOCIETY TO PARENTS (PRESCHOOL): pressure starts even before reach primary school--> Early childhood education where students can acquire basic skills. However parents are starting their children at even a younger age. ( for children as young as 18 months,my little genius, LEAP offers basic phonice, writing and brain training ,seen substantial growth in enrolment ) This is coupled with the assumption tha prestigious school would provide better education --> increase chance of graduation from university
                          1. PRESSURE FROM SOCIETY TO PARENTS (SECONDARY TO TERTIARY)
                            1. STRESS AND COMPETITION: As they progress tp the next level, stress level increases because they face high-stakes examination. While having a certain degree of stress can help bring out the best, optimal amt of stress differs for each individual
                              1. TUITION CULTURE: Privilege --> tuition wide spread phenomenon across asia especially in SIingapore and SK. Tuition has become a major part on house hold expenditure and parents want children to get ahead in life. These extra lessons cater to students of differ learning styles and abilities and parents see this as constructive way to spend spare time. However, cut into time for other that may be essential for well-rounded development. Partly because more work= tuition hmwk =
                              2. PRESSURE FROM FUTURE EMPLOYERS: Although employers consider other factors such as work experience and personal qualities (leadership, communication), currently, having a good degree does help one find a better job with higher salary ( Straits Times published in 2013, Diploma holder start salary $2000 while degree $3000)
                              3. OVER EMPHASIS ON ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS
                                1. GRADUATE UNEMPLOYMENT: After graduate from uni --> hard truth that degree does not guarantee a job. An over emphasis on academic university education and lack of vocational training --> skills mismatch (Business Times 2014 published: relentless pursuit of paper qualifications resulted in glut of graduated who are overqualified and underemployed) people with degree holding jobs that does not require a degree
                                  1. MOVING FORWARD: Diversifying --> more than just academic qualification. Local uni provide platforms to hone public speaking and leadership skills --> students more confident, versatile and articulate. Many uni exchange programmes--> acquire valuable knowledge. Internship (SMU has a compulsory internship programme where students need to compleste at least 10 weeks--> gain exposure and various career options)
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