Fractional distillation of crude oil

tom_gill99
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Mind Map on Fractional distillation of crude oil, created by tom_gill99 on 11/11/2013.

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tom_gill99
Created by tom_gill99 almost 6 years ago
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Fractional distillation of crude oil
1 Crude oil is a dark smelly liquid which is a mixture of lots of different chemicals compounds, mainly hydrocarbons(hydrogen and carbon compounds.
2 Hydrocarbon molecules with long molecule chains tend to have high boiling points and viscosity, and short chains catch fire easily
3 Crude oil that comes straight from the ground isn't very useful because there are too many other substances in it, all with different boiling points,.
4 Fractional distillation differs from distillation only in that it separates a mixture into a number of different parts, called fractions
5 Because they have different boiling points, the substances in crude oil can be separated using fractional distillation. The crude oil is evaporated and its vapours allowed to condense at different temperatures in the fractionating column. Each fraction contains hydrocarbon molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms
6 The main fractioinclude refinery gases, gasoline (petrol), naphtha, kerosene, diesel oil, fuel oil, and a residue that contains bitumen. These fractions are mainly used as fuels, although they do have other uses too
7 The main fractions include refinery gases, gasoline (petrol), naphtha, kerosene, diesel oil, fuel oil, and a residue that contains bitumen. These fractions are mainly used as fuels, although they do have other uses too
8 If there is plenty of air, we get complete combustion and the carbon in hydrocarbons is oxidised to carbon dioxide: hydrocarbon + oxygen → water + carbon dioxide
9 If there is insufficient air for complete combustion, we get incomplete combustion instead. The hydrogen is still oxidised to water, but instead of carbon dioxide we get carbon monoxide. Particles of carbon, seen as soot or smoke, are also released
10 Most hydrocarbon fuels naturally contain some sulfur compounds. When the fuel burns, the sulfur it contains is oxidised to sulfur dioxide.

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