Acidic Environment

Vicky Papadopoulos
Mind Map by Vicky Papadopoulos, updated more than 1 year ago
Vicky Papadopoulos
Created by Vicky Papadopoulos almost 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Acidic Environment, created by Vicky Papadopoulos on 09/20/2015.

Resource summary

Acidic Environment
1 1. Indicators
1.1 Classification of common substances
1.2 Litmus, phenolphthalein, methyl orange & bromothymol blue
1.3 Everyday uses of indicators
1.4 Range of colour changes
1.5 EXPERIMENT: Prepare & test a natural indicator
1.6 EXPERIMENT: Classifying household substances
2 2. Acidic Oxides
2.1 Oxides of non-metals acting as acids
2.2 Position of acidic/basic oxides in Periodic Table
2.3 Le Chatelier's principle
2.3.1 Factors which affect equilibrium
2.4 Solubility of carbon dioxide in water
2.5 Natural & industrial sources of SO2 and NOx
2.5.1 Environmental impact
2.5.2 Evidence of increase in acidic oxides in the atmosphere
2.6 Calculating volume of gases
2.6.1 EXPERIMENT: Decarbonating soft drink
2.7 Formation & effects of acid rain
3 3. Acids occur everywhere
3.1 Acids = proton donors + ionisation of acids in water
3.2 Acetic, citric, HCl & sulfuric acid
3.3 Use of pH scale
3.4 Calculating pH
3.4.1 EXPERIMENT: Use of pH meters
3.5 Strengths of equal concentrations of acids in terms of degree of ionisation
3.5.1 EXPERIMENT: Calculating pH
3.6 Difference between strong & weak acid
3.7 Use of acids as food additives
3.8 Naturally occurring acids & bases
4 4. History of acids
4.1 Lavoisier, Davy & Arrhenius
4.2 Bronsted-Lowry theory
4.3 Conjugate acids & bases
4.4 Salts which form acidic, basic or neutral solutions
4.4.1 EXPERIMENT: Calculating pH of salt solutions
4.5 Amphiprotic substances
4.6 Neutralisation = exothermic reaction
4.7 Correct technique for titrations
4.7.1 EXPERIMENT: Titrations + Preparing standard solutions
4.8 Effect of buffers
4.9 Use of neutralisation reactions as a safety measure
5 5. Esterification
5.1 Functional groups of alkanol & alkanoic acids
5.2 Difference in m.p. & b.p. of alkanols & alkanoic acids
5.3 Esterification = reaction between an acid & alkanol
5.3.1 EXPERIMENT: Prepare an ester
5.4 Purpose of using acid as a catalyst
5.5 Need for refluxing
5.6 Examples of occurrence, production & uses of esters
5.6.1 Uses of esters as flavours & perfumes
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