Nutrition and Eating Disorders

Andrea Díaz5176
Mind Map by Andrea Díaz5176, updated more than 1 year ago
Andrea Díaz5176
Created by Andrea Díaz5176 over 6 years ago
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Conceptual map about the nutrients, our metabolism and some eating disorders

Resource summary

Nutrition and Eating Disorders
  1. Nutrients
    1. Carbohydrates: Glucose is the most readily available source of energy for the body. Carbohydrates are digested to monosaccharides that can be converted to glucose. Glucose is stored in the liver in the form of glycogen. Between periods of eating, the blood glucose level is maintained at about 50-80mg/100ml of blood by the breakdown of glycogen or the conversion of fat or amino acids to glucose
      1. Proteins: Foods rich in protein include red meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, legumes, and nuts. After proteins are digested, amino acids enter the bloodstream and are transported to the tissues. Most often, the amino acids are not used for energy, but rather, they are used in protein synthesis to make the structural proteins found in muscles, skin, hair and nails; or other proteins such as hemoglobin, plasma proteins, enzymes, antibodies, neurotransmitters, and hormones. Protein synthesis requires 20 different types of amino acids. Of these, eight are required in the d
        1. Lipids: Fats, oils, and cholesterol are examples of lipids. Saturated fats, which are usually from animal origin, are solid at room temperature. Oils are unsaturated fats because they contain unsaturated fatty acids, which do not promote cardiovascular disease, are more filling and have a low glycemic index. Corn oil and safflower oils are high in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated oils are nutritionally essential because they are the only type of fat that contains linoleic acid and linolenic acid, two fatty acids the body cannot make. The body needs these two polyunsaturated fatty acids to produce various hormones and the cell membrane of cells.
          1. Cause: Cardiovascular diseasbecause the blockage of arteries by plaque, a substance that contains saturated fats and cholesterol.
          2. Vitamins: Vitamins are organic nutrients required in small amounts to maintain growth and healthy metabolism. Unlike carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, they do not provide energy or serve as building blocks for the body, but acts as coenzymes. Most vitamins cannot be synthesized by the body and must be ingested in food. Other vitamins, such as vitamin K are produced by bacteria in the GI tract and then absorbed. The body can make some vitamins when provitamins, the precursors, are provided. Vitamins are divided into fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins. Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, and K, and are absorbed along with other dietary lipids in the small intestine and packaged into chylomicrons. They cannot be absorbed in sufficient amounts unless they are ingested with other lipids. Fat-soluble vitamins may be stored in cells, especially the liver cells. The water-soluble vitamins include the B vitamins and vitamin C, and they readily dissolve in water. Excess quant
            1. Minerals: Minerals are inorganic elements that occur naturally in the Earth’s crust. Minerals have different functions in the body. Minerals can be divided into two types: macro minerals and trace minerals. Macro minerals are those that the body needs in large amounts and examples are calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium. Trace minerals are needed in very small amounts and include iron and zinc. Minerals with known functions in the body include calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, magnesium, iron, iodide, manganese, copper, cobalt, zinc, fluoride, selenium, and chromium. Attention must be paid to eating food that provide enough calcium, phosphorus, iron, and iodide. Excess amounts of most minerals are excreted in the urine and feces.
              1. Water: Water is the most important and abundant inorganic compound in all living systems. It is a nutrient needed in the largest amount, about 2-3 liters per day. As the most abundant compound in the body, water provides the medium in which most metabolic reactions occur, and it also participates in some reactions, such as hydrolysis reactions
              2. Metabolism: chemical reactions in the body’s cells that convert the fuels form food into the energy needed to everything from moving to thinking to growing. It is a vital process for all life that begins at conception and ends when we die. When people eat, they take in sugars and other cell building chemicals. The sugars are broken down to release energy that can be used as fuel for the body’s cells.
                1. Catabolism:Catabolism refers to those chemical reactions that break down complex organic molecules into simpler ones. These reactions break down body tissues and energy stores to generate more fuel for body functions.
                  1. Anabolism: Anabolism refers to chemical reactions that combine simple molecules and monomers to form complex structural and functional components in the body. These reactions build up body tissues and energy stores. The molecule that usually participates in energy exchanges in living cells is ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
                  2. Obesity: Obesity is a complex disorder involving an excess amount of body fat that increases your risk of diseases such as cardiovascular illness, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Being extremely obese means you are more likely to have health problems related to your weight
                    1. Symptoms: Obesity is likely when a person’s body mass index (BMI) is equal to or greater than 30. BMI can be calculated by dividing your weight into kilograms (kg) by your height in meters (m) squared.
                    2. Eating disorders
                      1. Anorexia Nerovosa: makes people lose more weight than is considered healthy for their age and height. Individuals with this disorder have a morbid fear of gaining weight, even when they are underweight. This fear causes them to be on very restrictive diets, exercise in excess, and use methods such as vomiting or using laxatives to bring about further weight loss.
                        1. Symptoms: low blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, constipation, constant chilliness; bone density decreases, leading to osteoporosis and stress fractures; menstruation ceases in females; the internal organs, including the brain start shutting down; the skin becomes dehydrated; the person becomes malnourished; and death may be imminent
                        2. Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by consuming large amounts of food in a short amount of time (binge eating), followed by an attempt to rid oneself of the food (purging) by vomiting, taking a laxative, diuretic or stimulant, and doing excessive amounts of exercise because of an exaggerated concern for body weight.
                          1. Consecuences: Vomiting can cause inflammation of the pharynx and esophagus. The stomach and esophagus may even rupture due to strong contractions during repeated vomiting.
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