PUTTING RESEARCH INTO PRACTICE,1-Epistemologies

Shereen Rolling
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Shereen Rolling
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PUTTING RESEARCH INTO PRACTICE,1-Epistemologies
1 Positivism
1.1 HOW DO WE KNOW WHAT WO KNOW
1.1.1 study nature world
1.1.1.1 gather
1.1.1.1.1 facts
1.1.1.2 observe
1.1.1.2.1 systematically
1.1.1.3 ask
1.1.1.3.1 direct questions
1.1.1.4 confirm
1.2 understand social reality
1.2.1 establish the scientific credibility of social enquiry
1.3 objective social reality waiting to be discovered
1.3.1 yes
1.4 facts are separated from values?
1.4.1 YES! strong seperation
1.4.1.1 objective
1.4.1.2 rejecting theory
2 Constructivism
2.1 HOW - KNOW WHAT WO KNOW
2.1.1 observing
2.1.2 taking notes
2.1.3 ask
2.2 HOW-understand social reality
2.2.1 rituals, understandings, and practices of everyday life

Annotations:

  • “continually guessing at meanings, assessing the guesses, and drawing explanatory conclusions from the better guesses” (Clifford Geeretz)
2.3 objective social reality waiting to be discovered
2.3.1 created in social situations through interaction and talk
2.4 facts are separated from values?
2.4.1 NO!
2.4.1.1 interviewing or ethnography
3 Critical realism
3.1 HOW - KNOW WHAT WO KNOW
3.2 HOW-understand social reality
3.2.1 quantitative and qualitative methods
3.3 objective social reality waiting to be discovered
3.3.1 YES
3.3.1.1 can't be known perfectly
3.4 facts are separated from values?
4 Documents/Archives
4.1 supplement research
4.1.1 EG:board meetings, internal memos, promotional materials, advertising campaigns, speeches, press releases etc.
4.2 primary focus-4 SITUATIONs
4.2.1 Access restricted
4.2.2 Access not possible
4.2.3 secondary analysis
4.2.3.1 re-analyse- datas from other people
4.2.4 key organization and meaning
4.3 Secondary datas
4.3.1 Evaluating
4.3.1.1 representitiveness
4.3.1.1.1 when
4.3.1.1.2 where
4.3.1.1.3 who
4.3.1.1.4 what
4.3.1.2 authenticity
4.3.1.3 credibility
4.4 4 AIMs-check
4.4.1 research has already been done?

Annotations:

  •    žFor books databases such as Books in Print, Worldcat and First Search. žFor journal articles Current Contents: Social and Behavioural Sciences, Jstor, LexisNexis, Social Science Index, British Humanities Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Arts and Humanities Index, Communication Abstracts, Market Research Abstracts.   
4.4.1.1 government, parliamentary and legal sources

Annotations:

  •    žReports and press releases from government departments and regulatory agencies. žDraft and final forms of legislation. žDebates in assemblies(立法机构,议会)and evidence given to enquiries. žRecords of court proceedings(诉讼,进程) where communications policy is debated and drafted. žMuch of this material is now available online. žhttp://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/help-with-your-research/research-guides/courts-of-law-records-held-in-other-archives/ ž žGovernments also collect a great deal of statistical information eg. The Source, The Guide to Official Statistics, UK Statistics.   
4.4.1.1.1 facts and figures

Annotations:

  •    žWillings Press Guide – details newspaper circulations, contents, cover prices, advertising rates across Europe and the rest of the world. žWorld Radio and Television Handbook žAdvertising Statistics Yearbook. The UN also produces a great deal of statistical information on the mass media
4.4.1.1.1.1 contemporary events

Annotations:

  •    žNewspaper are an invaluable source of up to the minute information. With the internet it is now possible to track the world’s media from your computer via archives or Nexis
4.5 4 types
4.5.1 Official Collections
4.5.2 National Archives
4.5.3 Media Holdings
4.5.4 Independent Collections.
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