Pregnancy Toxemia in Beef Cattle

Khalid Farahani
Mind Map by Khalid Farahani, updated more than 1 year ago
Khalid Farahani
Created by Khalid Farahani almost 5 years ago
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Pregnancy toxemia in beef cattle

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Pregnancy Toxemia in Beef Cattle
1 Pathophysiology
1.1 Pregnant cow requires a great deal of energy
1.1.1 Energy from mobilization of fat deposition into the liver via blood
1.1.2 Energy from glucose produced in the liver
1.1.3 Host, agent and environment factors
1.1.3.1 Negative energy balance (hypoglycemia)
1.1.3.1.1 Increase metabolism of fat store
1.1.3.1.1.1 Fatty acids overwhelm liver's capaciy to metabolize them
1.1.3.1.1.1.1 Excessive toxic by-products (acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate)
1.1.3.1.1.1.1.1 Ketosis increase, bicarbonate level in blood decrease
1.1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Rumen pH decrease leading to acidosis
1.1.3.1.1.1.1.1.2 Sweet acetone-like smell in breath
1.1.3.1.1.1.1.1.3 Start to affect the brain
1.1.3.1.1.1.1.1.3.1 Brain function is affected and the animal stops eating
1.1.3.1.1.1.2 Liver becomes enlarged, pale and fatty
2 Epidemiology
2.1 Host
2.1.1 Fat beef cows
2.1.2 Last 2 months of pregnancy
2.1.3 Bearing twins
2.1.4 Excessive parasitic burden, poor teeth or lameness
2.2 Environment
2.2.1 Yarding
2.2.2 Bad weathers
2.2.3 Sudden cold
2.2.4 Travelling
2.3 Agent
2.3.1 Glucose deficit
3 Clinical signs
3.1 Early CS
3.1.1 Depression & lethargy
3.1.2 Isolated from the rest
3.1.3 Reduced appetite/absent
3.2 Close to calving
3.2.1 Restlessness/ excitability
3.2.2 High stepping gait
3.2.3 Tendency to charge moving objects
3.2.4 Abortion/ premature calving
3.3 Increased resp. rate
3.4 Sweet acetone-like odor of breath
4 Differential Diagnosis
4.1 Traumatic reticulitis
4.2 Pyelonephritis
4.3 Displaced abomasum
4.4 Secondary ketosis
4.4.1 Metritis
4.4.2 Mastitis
4.5 Vagal indigestion
5 Treatment
5.1 Immediate vet. services
5.1.1 IV fluid therapy
5.1.2 C-sec or induction of calving
5.1.3 Anabolic steroids administration
5.1.4 IM injection of glucose, calcium borogluconate and magnesium salts
5.2 Intensive care
5.3 Green feeds
5.4 Energy supplement
5.5 Oral treatments
5.5.1 Sodium propionate
5.5.2 Propylene glycol
5.5.3 Electrolytes
6 Control and Prevention
6.1 Early detection of problem
6.2 Give high-energy feeds
6.3 Gestating cow should not be too fat/thin
6.4 Design nutritional program
6.5 Supplementary feeding practice
6.6 Separate animals based on production stage
7 References
7.1 1. W. Belinda (2007, Jan). Pregnancy Toxemia in Beef Cattle. Primefacts 335. NSW Department of Primary Industries. Retrieved from www.dpi.nsw.gov.au
7.2 2. S. Kenyon (n.d.). Metabolic Diseases. Unit 6 Part 2. Animal Health Management. Retrieved from http://ag.ansc.purdue.edu/nielsen/www495/notes/unit6_2.html
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