C1:Carbon Chemistry

Oliver Wood
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

AS Level Chemistry (C1 - Carbon Chemistry) Mind Map on C1:Carbon Chemistry, created by Oliver Wood on 11/19/2013.

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Oliver Wood
Created by Oliver Wood almost 6 years ago
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C1:Carbon Chemistry
1 Crude Oil
1.1 A finite resource being used up faster than it is created
1.2 Difficult to find replacements
1.3 All easily-accessible deposits will soon be used up
1.4 Problems with Extraction
1.4.1 Transportation
1.4.1.1 Can harm birds, wildlife, environments
1.4.1.1.1 Even cleanups can use damaging detergents
1.4.2 Political Problems
1.4.2.1 UK is dependent on expensive oil/gas providing countries
1.4.3 High demand
1.4.3.1 Causes conflict between needs for medicine, plastics and dyes
1.5 Fractional Distillation
1.5.1 Heated different-length hydrocarbons pumped in; Intermolecular forces are broken, each fraction leaves at a different height
1.5.1.1 Molecules separate from eachother as molecules of gas
1.5.2 Products:
1.5.2.1 LPG

Annotations:

  • Light Molecules: - Low boiling point - Not viscous - Highly flammable 
1.5.2.2 Petrol
1.5.2.3 Paraffin
1.5.2.4 Diesel
1.5.2.5 Heating Oil
1.5.2.6 Fuel Oils

Annotations:

  • Large Molecules: - High boiling point  - Very Viscous - Low flammability 
1.5.2.7 Bitumen
1.5.3 Smaller molecules eg. Petrol have WEAK intermolecular forces which can be broken at low temps.
1.5.4 Cracking
1.5.4.1 Large alkanes broken into smaller alkenes and alkanes
1.5.4.1.1 Alkenes have a double covalent bond
1.5.4.1.1.1 Useful for polymers
1.5.4.2 Cracking helps factories create smaller molecules to help match product demand eg. Petrol
2 Choosing Fuels
2.1 Coal
2.1.1 High energy value
2.1.2 Easily available
2.1.3 Bulky to store
2.1.4 High cost
2.1.5 Produces acid fumes
2.1.5.1 Acid rain
2.1.5.2 Soot
2.1.5.3 CO2
2.1.6 Easy to store for power stations
2.2 Petrol
2.2.1 High energy value
2.2.2 Readily available
2.2.3 Volatile for storage
2.2.4 High cost
2.2.5 Produces a few acid fumes
2.2.5.1 CO2
2.2.5.2 Nitrous Oxides
2.3 Increasing CO2 emissions concerning governments
2.3.1 Large populations burn more fuel
2.3.1.1 India
2.3.1.2 China
2.3.2 Many governments are aiming to cut down on CO2 emissions over 15-20 years
3 Combustion
3.1 Complete combustion
3.1.1 Fuel + Oxygen = Carbon + Water
3.1.1.1 CLEAN
3.1.1.2 High energy release
3.1.2 Carbon oxidises to carbon dioxide
3.1.3 Hydrogen oxidises to water
3.2 Incomplete Combustion
3.2.1 Fule + Oxygen = Carbon Monoxide + Water
3.2.1.1 TOXIC
3.2.1.2 Not as much energy released
3.2.2 Insufficient air supply
3.2.3 Carbon oxidises to carbon monoxide
3.2.4 Water oxidises to water
3.3 The burning of a substance with air (oxygen)
3.4 LIMEWATER TEST
3.4.1 Pass CO2 through Calcium Hydroxide solution
3.4.1.1 Turns cloudy white when CO2 present
4 Clean Air
4.1 78% Nitrogen
4.1.1 Balance is held because the processes are equally active
4.2 21% Oxygen
4.3 0.035% Carbon Dioxide
4.3.1 CO2 increase
4.3.1.1 Deforestation
4.3.1.1.1 Less photosynthesis
4.3.1.2 Increasing population of planet
4.3.1.2.1 Higher energy requirements
4.4 The Carbon Cycle
4.5 The Atmosphere
4.5.1 Theory Two
4.5.1.1 Used to be water vapor and CO2 rich
4.5.1.1.1 Water vapor condenses to create oceans
4.5.1.1.1.1 Water and plants absorb CO2 over time
4.5.1.1.1.2 Nitrogen levels slowly rise because it is unreactive
4.5.2 Theory One
4.5.2.1 Originally created by gasses inside earth
4.5.2.1.1 Volcanoes degassing
4.5.2.1.1.1 Creates sulphurous air
4.6 Pollution Control
4.6.1 Important to manage
4.6.1.1 Affects people's health
4.6.1.2 Affects natural and built environment
4.6.2 Sulphur Dioxide
4.6.2.1 Causes acid rain
4.6.2.1.1 Changes water pH
4.6.2.1.2 Erodes structures
4.6.2.1.3 Kills trees
4.6.2.2 Affects asthma
4.6.3 Catalytic converters
4.6.3.1 Made of platinum
4.6.3.2 Reaction between carbon monoxide and nitric oxide
4.6.3.2.1 Forms nitrogen (N2) and Carbon dioxide
4.6.3.2.1.1 2CO(g) + 2NO(g) -> N2(g) + 2CO2(g)
5 Making Polymers
5.1 Hydrocarbons
5.1.1 Alkanes
5.1.1.1 Single covalent bonds only
5.1.2 Alkenes
5.1.2.1 Double bond between two C atoms
5.1.3 Only carbon + hydrogen atoms
5.1.4 1 - Meth~
5.1.5 2 - Eth~
5.1.6 3 - Prop~
5.1.7 4 - But~
5.1.8 5-8 - Roman numerals eg Pent
5.2 Bromine tests for alkenes
5.2.1 Orange -> decolourises
5.3 'Saturated' = no double covalent bonds
5.4 Polymerisation
5.4.1 Many alkene monomers --> Polymer
5.4.1.1 High pressure
5.4.1.2 Catalyst needed
5.4.2 Creates long chain
5.4.2.1 Repeating patterns every 2 carbons
5.4.2.2 Called poly(ethene)
5.4.3 "Addition polymerisation"
5.5 Designer Polymers
5.5.1 Nylon
5.5.1.1 Tough, lightweight, blocks UV
5.5.2 GORE-TEX
5.5.2.1 All nylon properties
5.5.2.2 Also BREATHABLE
5.5.2.3 Polytetraflouroethene
5.5.2.3.1 PTFE
5.5.2.4 Breathable holes allow sweat through but not water
5.6 Polymer Disposal
5.6.1 Issues:
5.6.1.1 Landfill, doesn't decompose
5.6.1.2 Burning
5.6.1.2.1 Toxic gas
5.6.1.2.2 Wastes crude oil it was made of
5.6.1.3 Difficult to sort out diff. polymers
5.6.1.3.1 Recycling is difficult
5.6.2 New research
5.6.2.1 Dissolving
5.6.2.2 Bioderadable
5.7 Stretchy/riginess
5.7.1 Atoms held by covalent bonds
5.7.2 Plastics with low I.M. forces are flexible
5.7.2.1 Polymer molecules with low melting points
5.7.3 Strong I.M. forces are rigid
5.7.3.1 Molecules with high melting points
5.7.3.2 Can be 'crosslinked bridges'
6 Cooking and Food Additives
6.1 Protiens + Carbohydrates
6.1.1 Proteins change shape when cooked
6.1.1.1 'Denaturing'
6.1.1.2 Changes food texture
6.1.1.2.1 E.g. Eggs
6.1.2 Potato
6.1.2.1 Starch easier to digest when cooked
6.1.2.2 Cell walls split when cooked
6.1.2.2.1 Smoother texture
6.2 Baking powder
6.2.1 Sodium hydrogencarbonate
6.2.2 (+Heat)
6.2.2.1 Carbon Dioxide and water released
6.2.2.1.1 2NaHCO3 + Heat ----> CO2 + H2O
6.3 Emulsifiers
6.3.1 Bind water and oil/fat
7 Smells
7.1 Alcohol + Acid ---> Ester + Water
7.2 Esters
7.2.1 Used to make perfume
7.3 Perfumes
7.3.1 Must not be toxic
7.3.2 Must evaporate easily
7.3.3 Must not react with water (e.g. sweat)
7.3.4 Must not irritate skin
7.3.5 Be insoluble in water (Not wash off easily)
7.4 Solutions
7.4.1 Solvents + Solutes
7.4.1.1 Esters can be solvents
7.5 Volatility
7.5.1 (How easily it evaporates)
7.5.2 Kintetic energy must be given to particles
7.5.2.1 Break away from Intermolecular bonds
7.6 Nail Varnish
7.6.1 Will not dissolve in water
7.6.2 Water molecule attraction = stronger than water-nail varnish attraction
8 Paints and Pigments
8.1 Colloids - A type of mixture
8.1.1 Particles mixed and dispersed within liquid
8.1.1.1 Not dissolved
8.1.2 Components will not separate
8.1.2.1 Particles scattered evenly in mixture
8.1.2.2 Particles too small to settle
8.2 Paint Drying
8.2.1 Solvent evaporates
8.2.2 Applied as thin layer
8.2.3 emulsion = water based
8.2.3.1 Water evaporates away
8.2.4 Oil = Oil and Solvent
8.2.4.1 Solvent evaporates
8.2.5 Oil in both is left behind
8.2.5.1 Forms protective layer on top
8.3 Thermochromic Pigments
8.3.1 Uses
8.3.1.1 Thermometers
8.3.1.1.1 Fridges
8.3.1.1.2 Body temp
8.3.1.2 Electric Kettles
8.3.1.3 Babies spoons/bottles
8.3.2 Can be mixed with acrylics
8.3.3 Phosphorescent Pigments
8.3.3.1 Absorb and store energy
8.3.3.1.1 Release slowly over time
8.3.3.2 Safer than radiation