Physics 2

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physic p2

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Physics 2
  1. Acceleration is how quickly velocity is changing
    1. acceleration=change in velocity/ time taken
    2. weight and mass not the same thing
      1. weight = mass x gravitational field strenght
        1. Mass is in kg and weight is in newtons
          1. mass is the measure of how much matter an object has- weight is the measure of how strongly gravity pulls on that matter
        2. forces
          1. when a force moves an object through a distance energy is tranferred and work is done
            1. Work Done = Force x Distance
              1. Gravitational potential energy= mass x g x height
                1. Power = work done (or energy transferred)/ Time taken
                  1. Momentum (kg m/s) = Mass(kg) x Velocity (m/s)
            2. Resultant force
              1. a stationary objects resultant force is zero
                1. If the resultant force on a moving object is zero the object will continue to move in the same direction at the same speed
                2. F= ma
                  1. m=mass (kg) a= acceleration (m/s) F=resultant force in newtons
                3. When two object interact the forces they exert on each other are equal and opposite
                  1. Resistance
                    1. resistance- from fluid (air or liquid)
                      1. reduce resistance by making object streamline
                        1. increases as speed increases
                      2. Friction
                        1. friction - opposite direction to movement
                        2. Cars
                          1. things that affect stopping distance: speed of vehicle, thinking distance, weather
                            1. new car design
                              1. brakes - rather then converting the kinetic energy of the vechicl to heat enegry, brakes put vechiles motor into reverse- motor goes backwards wheels slow down - electric generator then stores this energy
                                1. Cars designed to convert kinetic energy safely in a crash
                                  1. by increasing time over which momentum changes happen to lesson forces on passenger
                                    1. Crumple zones
                                      1. Air bags
                                        1. side impact bars
                                    2. two different parts of overall stopping distance of a car- thinking distance and braking distance
                                    3. Terminal velocity
                                    4. Atomic structure
                                      1. Plum pudding
                                        1. Isotopes- same number of protons but different number of neutrons
                                          1. most isotopes are radioactive, which means they decay into other elements and give out radiation
                                          2. Types of radiation
                                            1. alpha
                                              1. slow moving , big ,ionising
                                                1. helium- 2 neutrons, two protons
                                                2. beta
                                                  1. quite fast, moderately ionising, simply an electron- charge of -1
                                                  2. gamma
                                                    1. penetrate far into materials, no mass or charge , weakly ionising
                                                3. Electricity
                                                  1. Static electricity
                                                    1. caused by friction
                                                      1. insultating materials
                                                        1. result of a imbalance between positve and negative charges in an object. Build up on surface of a object and find a way to be released
                                                          1. rubbing certain materials against one another can transfer negative charges, or electons
                                                            1. only electons move- negative charges!
                                                        2. opposites repel
                                                          1. Charges attract
                                                        3. current- flow of electricity
                                                          1. Resistnace- anything in circuit which slows the flow down
                                                            1. resistance increases with temperature
                                                              1. due to some electical energy transferred to heat energy
                                                          2. ammeter measures current
                                                            1. voltmeter measure potential differnce
                                                            2. types of circuits
                                                              1. series-
                                                                1. All of nothing
                                                                2. parellel
                                                                  1. independance and isolation
                                                              2. Difference in speed and velocity - velocity involves speed and idrection
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