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Alkenes

Description

Mind Map on Alkenes, created by Ramisa Raya on 10/20/2015.
Ramisa Raya
Mind Map by Ramisa Raya, updated more than 1 year ago
Ramisa Raya
Created by Ramisa Raya over 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Alkenes

Annotations:

  • https://youtu.be/ZPpjSB6hUS8
  1. Alkane
    1. Free radical chain reaction
      1. Requires UV light to split halogen bond (Cl-Cl), (Br-Br)

        Annotations:

        • Is a high energy barrier and requires a lot of energy to overcome this. 
        • This ensues the "initiation, propagation, and termination" steps. 
        1. Halogenoalkanes

          Annotations:

          • Compounds where 1 or more hydrogen atoms in an alkane has been replaced by halogen atoms (Cl, Br, I, etc).
          • You cannot control the products formed: they can be mono-, di-, or tri- halogenoalkanes. 
          1. Free radical chain reaction
            1. Dihalogenalkane
              1. Free radical chain reaction
                1. Tri/tetrahalogenalkane
                2. Br2, I2, Cl2
              2. Substitution reactions (SN1/SN2)

                Annotations:

                • SN1 - Substitution Nucleophilic 1st order SN2 - Substitution Nucleophilic 2nd order
                1. Alcohol
                  1. Secondary (2o) alcohol
                    1. Oxidation reaction

                      Annotations:

                      • Potassium  Disodium dichromate (orange, but turns green during oxidation process, as it forms Cr3+ ion) H --> REMOVED =O (double bond made with O molecule, which makes ketone)
                      1. Ketone
                    2. Primary (1o) alcohol

                      Annotations:

                      • Undergo oxidation
                      1. Oxidation

                        Annotations:

                        • Small amount of dichromate and dilute acid, with simple distilisation, get aldehyde. 
                        1. Aldehyde
                          1. Further oxidation

                            Annotations:

                            • Having a large amount of oxidising agent, opposed to lower, means further oxidation. Cr2O7/conc. H+ reflux 
                            1. Carboxylic acid
                    3. Tertiary (3o) - SN1 rxn
                      1. Forms: carbocation
                        1. primary (1o) - SN2 rxn
                          1. contains transition state
                            1. with: nucleophile

                              Annotations:

                              • Hydroxide ion all nucleophile must have lone pair of e-
                2. H+ with a Ni catalyst
                3. Hydrogen halide
                  1. Steam (300 C, 70 atm)
                    1. Heated under pressure + catalyst
                      1. poly(alkene)
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