Identity: argued as being what makes us individualistic. Identity is summary of who we are.

Mind Map by amybeaumont33, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by amybeaumont33 over 4 years ago


My identity mind map

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Identity: argued as being what makes us individualistic. Identity is summary of who we are.
1 Ethnicity (Ethnic Identity)
1.1 Ethnicity is often determined by: Skin colour, origins, religion or spoken language. Which are all aspects of culture.
1.1.1 Sociologists have studied how different 'races' and religions experience racism and other treatment in varied forms. Winston James (1993) explains how afro-Caribbean's in the UK, may have been divided by darkness of skin. Yet the common experience of racism often brings black people together, the label 'black' is a resistance to racism.
1.2 Post-modernists argue that ethnicity is now a choice due to globalisation and cultural hybridity, ethnicity is now mixed and difficult to differentiate.
1.2.1 Despite this hate crime based on ethnicity (specifically skin colour and religion) are still common and possibly rising. Meaning that discrimination and separation is key, meaning ethnicity continues to be a huge part of our identity as it is what divides and separates the population.. Dawney (2008) found evidence of racism against European migrants. Suggesting that it stems from the fear of numbers that is seen as a threat. Hewiit (2005) considers white people are against multiculturalism. As policies to create an equal society are impacting negatively on the majority population ()and are benefiting minorities,.
2 Gender and Identity
2.1 Gender is constantly changing. It is debated that gender relates to the nature Vs. Nurture debate, and is based upon the biological differences between male and female (sex) , yet sociologists argue that gender is a socially constructed term to decide what is seen as feminine or masculine.
2.1.1 Gender has created roles, which are considered a norm of modern day society so are regularly followed with little misconduct. E.g: a the role of a housewife is a constructed gender role along with the stereotype that it is the male that must go out and work to provide for his family,
2.1.2 The biological view stated by Wilson (1975) explain that men need to naturally be dominant and promiscuous- enabling them to pass on their genetics. Whereas women need to nurture the child and stay faithful to their husband.
2.1.3 Radical Feminists argue that the idea of 'gender' is socially constructed by a male dominated society (Patriarchal society). Allowing males to decide how each sex should act; reinforcing stereotypes. These behaviours come through socialisation. First primary experienced from the roles of the mother and father. But also in secondary socialisation. (E.g.: Friendship groups) Hey (1997) studied friendship groups of teenage girls. Observing that the power of the girl and how they behave stems from patriarchy and what is considered 'normal' behaviour for girl. (The conform to societies stereotypes.) Marxism: Popular and Mass culture distract society from gender ineqaulity. Conflict theory: gender ineqaullity is necessary. Society benefits those with power, in a patriarchal society that would be males getting the benefit. Fuctionalism: Society benefits everyone differently, no matter their gender. Gender roles are vital in society, ensure the society works.
2.2 Aspects of gender behaviour and stereotypes if followed become part of our identity.
2.2.1 E.g. Boys are expected to enjoy the outdoors and play sports and are therefore encouraged to do so, making these activities and norms and therefore a part of their identity. Girls however are encouraged to cook and clean, and play dress-up/mothers preparation for later life. These are once again reinforced becoming part of their identity.
2.3 Masculinity: Aggressive Masculinity or Hegemony Masculinity (Socially desriable middle class)
2.4 Looking Glass Self: Women are persuadeded by agencies of socialisation that they must appeal in a certain way. Look and act in certain ways in order to 'fit in'.
2.5 Mac and Ghaill (19940 Focuses on "hyper-masculinity" among males. This included polcing their own sexuality's.
3 Social Class and Identity:
3.1 Class: a group of people who share similar social status and economic/social situation. Social Class may be judged by: income, possessions, lifestyle, leisure, accent, norms, and even occupation.
3.2 Class is often linked to how wealthy you are and in a world governed by money. Those exposed to wealth compared to those who are not will have widely different views on: education, occupation, lifestyle and taste. All aspects which impact identity. Your tastes and interests, level of education are all defining features of who you are.
3.2.1 Post- Modernists argues that we are now all part of a consumer culture and are defined and categorised buy what we now buy. (Pakulski and waters (1996)) and Offe (1985) explains that we are all able to create our own identities regardless of the social class we are currently in or were born into. Depending on the level of education we achieve and the job we may have. Savge et. al (2001) Most saw themselves as outside social class. He describes a paradox- class is an important structural force in peoples lives,, yet class identities are usually weak.
3.3 The Upper Class: Traditionally inherited wealth. Mooney (2004) The Upper class operate 'social closure' the defining differences between education, leisure and daily lives. They also partake in activities viewed as private for those of wealth. E.g.: Polo and hunting.
3.4 The Middle Class: Now seen as the majority of the UK. Middle class are associated with owning their own home, and have a higher level of education. But this is so widely spread the norms and values are so diverse. Yet Class isi still a defining aspect of your identity.
3.5 Working Class: seen as manual workers without trade employment. Hutton (1995) expresses that their has been a decline in manual work meaning the working class are now uncommon.
3.6 Underclass: The lowest section of society. Now seen as those who rely on benefits, with a lack of education and opportunities. Murray (1984) argues that now the government supply the population with benefits people have developed a set of norms and values (aspects of identity) where they feel they do not need to work or take responsibility for their own actions.
3.7 Feminists: Gender inequality women earn less and gain less power than men. Working class women perform unpaid labour such as running a household.
3.8 Functionalists: Society benefits everyone of all social classes. The class system and roles in classes are needed to keep society running smoothly.
4 Sexuality:
4.1 Is an area of our socials lives that society is obsessed about.
4.2 Various sexuality's are often seen in various scales and are viewed/reacted on differently.
4.2.1 Weeks (1987) Say sit is not common for many to declare 'they are straight' but saying you are 'Gay' or 'Lesbian' is a bold statement of self-definition. A huge part of ones self-identity.
4.3 In the UK attitudes towards homosexuality have publicly changed. the equality Act 2019 makes is legal for same sex marriage, 'we are now more accepting.'
4.3.1 Homosexuality used to be considered a mental illness. In some counties such as Uganda and Nigeria homosexuality is still illegal, with some homosexuals being denied human rights, seen in Russia.
4.4 Radical Femisim: Heteronormativity is still the "norm". Women are sexualised for men in the media.
4.5 Marxism: Society is distracted by popular culture; distracts from issues with non-heterosexual individuals. Conflict theory; heterononormativity versus diverse sexual orintations.
4.6 Fuctionalism: Roles ensure society works, the traditional nuclear family is belived to be best.
4.7 Post-modernism: Sexual diversity establishing among society. Heteronomativity is breaking down, more rights to non-heterosexual individuals. media starts normalising homosexual relationships.
4.8 Weeks (1991) "Sexual identification is a strange thing" Sexuality is more complex than other aspects of an identity. People may or may not participate in sexual activity with those thye are sexually attrated to.
5 Age and Identity:
5.1 Age is seen as the only aspect of our identity that will change over time. from children, to adults to pensioners.
5.1.1 Childhood: The first stage of our lives. Despite being viewed as the time period where we are kept innocent and oblivious to the dangers and horrors of society. Yet in childhood you are able to join the army, in certain cultures children are web and have children themselves.
5.1.2 Youth is socially constructed and is viewed as a stage of rebellion, often seen is More economically developed countries.
5.1.3 Old age is often a major part of your identity, it is a stage of reflection. But also a stage of negativity. Seen in the study by Corners 1999. You have been convinced that part of old age is being ill and weary, but this should not define everyone. It is once again a stereotype which we have conformed to, therefore making it part of your identity.
5.2 Post-modernists look at trends (E.g: anti-ageing products as an extension of youth and how age is now just a concept. Featherstone and Hepworth (2005)say that media, show ageing negatively creating stereotypes and intentities However, the return of old fashions 80's and 90's fashion shows that the boundaries of time and age are no longer as defining.
6 Disability
6.1 It means that you are physically or mentally different.
6.2 Marxism: Conflict: as being disabled is established as a medical problem, It clashes with the able.
6.3 Functionalism: Society can benefit both the able and disabled.
6.4 Post-modernist: say that disability is now being presented positively by the media. Advanced technology is now helping the disabled to blend into society.
6.5 Impression Management: People with disabilities would have to act in a more brave and independent manner when in public.. In private, the would feel most comfortable as they are alone or surrounded by close friends/relatives.
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