ElectroMetallurgy

Muhammad Afif
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

An introduction of electrometallurgy, science and engineering of extraction metal by zapping them inside water/fused salt.

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Muhammad Afif
Created by Muhammad Afif almost 6 years ago
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ElectroMetallurgy
1 Introduction
1.1 Science and Engineering that study extraction & refinery metals using electrical power
1.2 Basic Principal
1.2.1 Galvanic Cell
1.2.1.1 Produce Powers
1.2.1.2 Anode (-) Katode (+)
1.2.1.3 Examples
1.2.1.3.1 Zn-C Batteries
1.2.1.3.1.1 A ( Zn) K (MnO2) E(NH4Cl + H2O + ZnCL2)
1.2.1.3.1.2 Depolarisator Case
1.2.1.3.1.3 Unrechargeable
1.2.1.3.2 Alkaline Batteries
1.2.1.3.2.1 A (Zn) K (MnO2) E (KOH)
1.2.1.3.2.2 Rechargeable
1.2.1.3.3 Lead Acid Battery
1.2.1.3.3.1 A (Pb) K(PbO2) E(H2SO4)
1.2.1.3.3.2 Rechargeable by Charging, reverse Electrolysis
1.2.2 Electrolytic Cell
1.2.2.1 Needs Power
1.2.2.2 Anode (+) Katode (-)
1.2.2.3 Examples
1.2.2.3.1 Electrowinning
1.2.2.3.1.1 Aqueous Electrowinning
1.2.2.3.1.1.1 Zn,Cu,Au,Ni,Ag
1.2.2.3.1.1.2 Recovers metals from pregnant leach solution by Electrolysis
1.2.2.3.1.1.3 Catode produce "heavy" solid metals
1.2.2.3.1.1.4 Inert Anode
1.2.2.3.1.1.5 Acid (H2O) Base (OH-)
1.2.2.3.1.1.6 below 100C, 2-5V, 2-3.5 kWh/kg, 80-90%(Current Eff)
1.2.2.3.1.2 Fused Salt
1.2.2.3.1.2.1 Produce metal that has e negatively
1.2.2.3.1.2.1.1 typically light metals, al,mg,li,na,be,ti,ca,ta
1.2.2.3.1.2.1.1.1 molten metals
1.2.2.3.1.2.2 fused salt electrolyte ex cryolite
1.2.2.3.1.2.3 400-1000C, 10-35kWh/kg, 75-95, 4-10V
1.2.2.3.1.2.4 Voracious of Power
1.2.2.3.1.2.4.1 Heat Loss Factor, Gas Evolution, Electrolyte Ressistant
1.2.2.3.1.2.5 Soluble in molten salt
1.2.2.3.2 Electrorefining
1.2.2.3.2.1 99.99
1.2.2.3.2.2 Dore Bullion Refining
1.2.2.3.2.3 Anode is less pure
1.2.2.3.2.4 <0.5V, <0.5kWh/kg, 90-99%
1.2.2.4 Principal
1.2.2.4.1 EDecomposition = -EAnode + EKatode (red)
1.2.2.4.1.1 ECell = ED + overpotential
1.2.2.4.1.1.1 Activation Polarization
1.2.2.4.1.1.2 Concentration Polarization
1.2.2.4.1.1.3 Ohmic Ressistance
1.2.2.4.1.1.4 Bus bar Ressistance
1.2.2.4.1.1.5 Gas Evolution on electrode
1.2.2.4.2 Faraday Laws
1.2.2.4.2.1 m = Ar*I*t/z/F
1.2.2.4.3 Current Efficiency = IDeposition/IApplied
1.2.2.4.4 Energy Consume = V*I*t/1000/m
1.2.2.4.5 Voltage Efficiency = VDecomposition / Vactual
1.2.2.4.6 Energy Efficiency = VoltageEff x CurrentEff
1.2.2.4.7 Circuit of ElectrolysisTank
1.2.2.4.7.1 Parallel for each A and K
1.2.2.4.7.2 Perpendicular for cross tank
1.2.2.4.8 Cathode
1.2.2.4.8.1 StarterSheet
1.2.2.4.8.1.1 Same Metals
1.2.2.4.8.1.2 New sheet everyneeds, no stripping
1.2.2.4.8.2 Permanent
1.2.2.4.8.2.1 Stripping Machine
1.2.2.4.8.2.2 Stainless Steel and Aluminum
1.2.2.4.8.2.3 Permanent!
1.2.2.4.8.2.4 Advantages over Starter Sheet
1.2.2.4.8.2.4.1 Eliminate cost of producing starter sheet
1.2.2.4.8.2.4.2 Maintain verticality
1.2.2.4.8.2.4.3 minimize nodule, dendrite and short circuits
1.2.2.4.8.2.4.4 Possibe for higher current operation, cause maintaining uniformity distance beetween A and K
1.2.2.4.9 Anode
1.2.2.4.9.1 Pb Alloys
1.2.2.4.9.2 Graphite
1.2.2.4.9.3 Titanium
1.2.2.4.9.4 Platinum
1.2.2.4.9.5 Nickel
1.2.2.4.9.6 Stainless Steel
1.2.2.4.9.7 Consider
1.2.2.4.9.7.1 Price and Availability
1.2.2.4.9.7.2 Corrosion Ressistance
1.2.2.4.9.7.3 Mechanical Strength
1.2.2.4.9.7.4 Conductivity
1.2.2.4.9.7.5 Gas Evolution Overpotential