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Immunology I

Description

this mind map covers the concepts of self and non-self antigens. it also illustrates the specific and non-specific immune responses and much more ...
fatema Al-Sabahi
Mind Map by fatema Al-Sabahi, updated more than 1 year ago
fatema Al-Sabahi
Created by fatema Al-Sabahi over 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Immunology I
  1. the study of the body's defence mechanisms
    1. immune responses
      1. Specific
        1. required several days
          1. daptive
            1. Cell-mediated
              1. involve lymphocytes
                1. Cell-Mediated immunity
                  1. T-lymphocytes
                    1. originally from red bone marrow
                      1. perinatal migration & stop off in thymus gland

                        Annotations:

                        • of or relating to the time, usually a number of weeks, immediately before and after birth.
                        1. confers immunological competence on T-cells
                          1. most stored in inactive state
                            1. as small lymphocytes
                        2. less than 10% of cells r selected
                          1. the only with receptors
                            1. bind to specific antigen
                            2. activation
                              1. 1 in 10000 T-cells may respond
                                1. become activated/sensitized cells
                                  1. 1. increase size
                                    1. 2. divides mitotically
                                      1. 3. form clone of cells
                                        1. 4. produce variety of specialised cells (T-cell subsets)
                                          1. Cytotoxic T-cells
                                            1. combine with surface antigens releasing Cytokines
                                              1. e.g. perforine-1
                                                1. membrane pores
                                                  1. i.e destroy infected cells
                                            2. Helper T-cells
                                              1. release interleukins --> infection site
                                                1. attract macrophages
                                                  1. make other lymphocytes competent to help
                                                2. memory cells
                                                  1. cause rapid second response

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • the first response take from 3-14 days
                                                    1. bearing receptors to the antigen
                                                      1. pathogens destroyed before it can get established
                                                        1. e.g. Measles & chickenpox
                                                        2. cold/influenza viruses change their surface antigens
                                                      2. suppressor T-cells
                                                        1. 5. T-cells leave lymph nodes to infection site
                                              2. helper T-cells secret cytokines
                                                1. help activate T-cells
                                            3. antigen-presenting cells (APCs)
                                              1. dendritic cells
                                                1. engulf foreign antigen
                                                  1. macrophages
                                                    1. phagocytoses pathogen
                                                      1. break down surface antigens
                                                      2. e.g antigen-MHC complex
                                                    2. competent lymphocytes;
                                                    3. Antibody-Mediated immunity
                                                  2. non-specific
                                                    1. innate
                                                      1. types
                                                        1. 1. physical barrier
                                                          1. the skin
                                                            1. sweat and sebum
                                                              1. destroy some bacteria
                                                                1. defensins
                                                                  1. mucin
                                                                    1. lysosome
                                                                2. the stomach
                                                                  1. acid secretions
                                                                    1. destroy microorganisms
                                                                  2. the lungs
                                                                    1. sticky mucous
                                                                      1. lining in Bronchi andbronchioles
                                                                  3. 2. Cytokines (soluble molecules)
                                                                    1. the special proteins that are secreted collectively when pathogens enter tissues
                                                                      1. interferons
                                                                        1. inhibit viral macromolecule production
                                                                          1. stimulate other immune responses
                                                                            1. release in viral infections
                                                                            2. Interleukins
                                                                              1. secreted by macrophages and lymphocytes
                                                                                1. regulate interaction between various parts of the immune system
                                                                                  1. Functions with Tumor Necrosis Factor TNF in mediating inflammation
                                                                                  2. some of them stimulate NK cell activation
                                                                                    1. Natural Killer Cells (NK)
                                                                                      1. large granular lymphocytes from the bone marrow
                                                                                        1. 15% of the circulating lymphocytes
                                                                                          1. release cytokines e.g perforine
                                                                                            1. cause pores in PM of target cells
                                                                                              1. PM= Plasma Membrane
                                                                                              2. Granzymes then activate a cascade of reactions
                                                                                                1. cause apoptosis
                                                                                        2. 3. inflammation
                                                                                          1. cells release histamine & serotonine
                                                                                            1. dilate blood vessels in the infected area
                                                                                              1. increase capillary wall permeability
                                                                                                1. cause Oedema
                                                                                                2. brings monocytes + neutrophils+ plasma protein gamma globulins (antibodies)
                                                                                                  1. releasing endogenous pyrogens
                                                                                                    1. interleukin-1
                                                                                                      1. prostaglandins
                                                                                                        1. reset body's thermostat in the hypothalamus to higher (T)
                                                                                                          1. produce fever or pyrexia
                                                                                                            1. effects directly bacterial metabolism
                                                                                                3. phagocytosis
                                                                                                  1. major function of inflammation
                                                                                                    1. they're leucocytes
                                                                                                      1. Monocytes
                                                                                                        1. 1. leave the circulation
                                                                                                          1. 2. transform into macrophages
                                                                                                            1. phagocytose 〰100 bacteria before dying!
                                                                                                        2. Neutrophils
                                                                                                          1. phagocytose 〰 20 bacteria before dying
                                                                                                            1. dead neutrophils formed pus
                                                                                                            2. smaller
                                                                                                          2. some bacteria resist it
                                                                                                            1. e.g. tuberculosis bacilli
                                                                                                            2. distributed widley
                                                                                                              1. particularly in the gut wall & lungs
                                                                                                              2. release interleukin-1
                                                                                                                1. as inflammatory process
                                                                                                            3. prevent the spread of infection
                                                                                                              1. until specific come into play
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