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Converting Oil into Products


Mapa conceptual del capítulo 11 del libro "The oil and gas industry; a non technical guide" por Humberto Ponce
Humberto Ruiz
Mind Map by Humberto Ruiz, updated more than 1 year ago
Humberto Ruiz
Created by Humberto Ruiz over 6 years ago

Resource summary

Converting Oil into Products
  1. Modification
    1. Refiners also use modification to achieve finished products with desired properties by the rearrangement or alteration of hydrocarbon molecules. Two important modification processes are catalytic reforming and isomerization.
      1. Catalytic reforming. Catalytic reforming (also called cat reforming) modifies naphtha into high-octane blendstocks for gasoline
        1. Isomerization. This is the process used to create isomers. An isomer is a molecule or compound that has the same number of atoms as another but has a different arrangement of those atoms, which produces different physical and chemical properties.
        2. Conversion
          1. Conversion is the broad term applied to processes that crack (break apart), combine, or modify nongasoline and non–middle-distillate hydrocarbons into motor gasoline and compounds called middle distillates
          2. Separation/Distillation
            1. In the separation state, the first issue of concern is the removal of salts and any remaining water from the crude oil stream.
              1. The incoming crude is typically first routed to a vessel called a desalter, in which extra water is added and the crude/water solution is intensely mixed and heated to about 250°F.
              2. After the removal of water and salt, the crude undergoes a process called distillation.
              3. Combination
                1. The opposite of cracking is combination—the joining together of smaller hydrocarbon molecules to produce larger, more valuable ones.
                  1. Polymerization. Polymerization puts together a series of molecules.
                    1. Alkylation. Like polymerization, alkylation is used to put together propylene and butylene (from a cracking unit), but it uses isobutane and acidic catalysts to produce the desired higher-octane gasoline blendstock.
                  2. Cracking
                    1. Cracking is the breaking of large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller ones. Thermal cracking uses heat to achieve this end, while catalytic cracking uses catalysts to do so.
                      1. Thermal cracking
                        1. Steam cracking. One type of thermal cracking, steam cracking makes use of high-temperature steam to do its work
                          1. Coking. converts the residuals from distillation into more-valuable gases, middle distillates, gasoline blendstock, and naphtha, plus a by-product called coke
                            1. Visbreaking. A second kind of thermal cracking, visbreaking is used to reduce the viscosity of heavy residual fuel oil.
                              1. Catalytic cracking uses heat and pressure, but it also employs a catalyst to either speed up the process or allow it to occur at a lower temperature..
                            2. BY HUMBERTO PONCE
                              1. Enhancement
                                1. In general terms, enhancement is the use of selected processes to remove unwanted elements or compounds from a hydrocarbon at some stage in the refinery
                                  1. Hydroprocessing
                                    1. Hydroprocessing uses hydrogen to remove sulfur, nitrogen, nickel, and vanadium from gasoline and middle distillates.
                                    2. Amine treating
                                      1. Also sometimes called amine washing, this process uses amine solvents to remove hydrogen sulfide, a highly toxic gas, from oil.
                                      2. Solvent extraction
                                        1. A third common enhancement process, solvent extraction is also known as solvent recovery. At various stages in the refinery system, operators introduce a solvent into a product stream to selectively remove some component.
                                        2. Sweetening
                                          1. Sweetening is the process used to neutralize the sulfur compound mercaptan in gasoline and other intermediate and finished products.
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