COMMUNICATIVE LANGUEGE COMPETENCES

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Mind Map by johnmnr, updated more than 1 year ago
johnmnr
Created by johnmnr about 6 years ago
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MIND MAP FOR ENGLISH EXAM

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COMMUNICATIVE LANGUEGE COMPETENCES
  1. RODRIGO CRUZ
    1. * LEXICAL COMPETENCE: is far more than the ability to identify a given number of words. The process by which learners acquire a great deal information about a word takes place gradually over a long period of time, and it is very elaborate. Is the knowledge of, and ability to use, the vocabulary of a language, consists of lexical elements and grammatical elements. *GRAMATICAL COMPETENCE may be defined as knowledge of, and ability to use, the gramatical resources of a language, is the ability to understand and express meaning by producing and recognising well-formed phrases and sentences in accordance with these principles. Is the knowledge of the lexical ítems and of rules of morphology, syntax, sentence grammar semantics, and phonology. *SEMANTIC COMPETENCE: deals with the learner’s awareness and control of the organisation of meaning. Lexical semantics deals with questions of word meaning. The notion of semantic competence does not take account of the reference of
      1. PHONOLOGICAL COMPETENCE is the ability to recognize and produce the distinctive meaningful sounds of a language, including: Consonants, vowels, tone patterns, intonation patterns, rhythm patterns, stress patterns, any other suprasegmental features that carry meaning. Related to phonological competence is orthographic competence, or the ability to decipher and write the writing system of a language. involves a knowledge of, and skill in the perception and production of: • the sound-units (phonemes) of the language and their realisation in particular contexts (allophones); • the phonetic features which distinguish phonemes (distinctive features, e.g. voicing, rounding, nasality, plosion); • the phonetic composition of words (syllable structure, the sequence of phonemes, Word stress, word tones); • sentence phonetics (prosody) • sentence stress and rhythm • intonation; phonetic reduction • vowel reduction • strong and weak forms • assimilation • elision.
        1. SOCOLINGUISTIC COMPETENCE refer to the sociocultural conditions of language use. Through its sensitivity to social conventions and the social convnetions that rule language use in a specific speech community. * LINGUISTIC MARKERS of social relations These are of course widely divergent in different languages and cultures, depending on such factors as a) relative status, b) closeness of relation, c) register of discourse, etc. The examples given below for English are not universally applicable and may or may not have equivalence in other languages. +POLITENESS CONVENTIONS provide one of the most important reasons for departing from the straightforward application of the ‘co-operative principle from one culture to another and are a frequent source of inter-ethnic misunderstanding, especially when polite expressions are literally interpreted.
          1. ***PRAGMATIC COMPETENCE refers to the ability to use language appropriately in different social situations. It is true to say that there is no correct way to use language; however, we can certainly define what is appropriate use of language in different circumstances. Purposes for communicating, often referred to as functions, e.g., inviting, apologizing. *** DISCOURSE COMPETENCE refers to the way ideas are linked across sentences (in written discourse) or utterances (in spoken discourse). We use two main aspects to undestand Discourse Competence:: Cohesion, which refers to how we link ideas linguistically. For example, we use pronouns to refer to what or who has been mentioned previously, e.g., he, it, one, none, that, this. Another example includes the use of an auxiliary verb as a substitute for the main verb, e.g., ‘Do you work here?’ ‘Yes, I do.'
    2. ROSA MARIA RODRIGUEZ
      1. LEXICAL COMPETENCE : is the ability to recognize and use words in a language in the way that speakers of the language use them. Lexical competence includes understanding the different relationships among families of words and the common collocations of words ****LEXICAL COMPETENCE : is the ability to recognize and use words in a language in the way that speakers of the language use them. Lexical competence includes understanding the different relationships among families of words and the common collocations of words GRAMMATICAL COMPETENCE: is the ability to recognize and produce the distinctive grammatical structures of a language and to use them effectively in communication. SEMANTIC COMPETENCE: consists of the ability to determine the meaning of a particular string of words. Since a particular string of words may correspond to more than one syntactic structure, we can take semantic competence to consist of the ability to determine the meaning of a particular syntactic structur
        1. ORTHOGRAPHY COMPETENCE: is a set of conventions for how to write a languaje. It includes rules of spelling,, capitalizacionword break,emphasis, and puntation. LINGUISTIC MARKERS: is a free or bound morphemethat indicates the gramatical funtion of the marked word, phrase, or sentence. POLITENESS CONVENTIONS: Conventions of politeness vary considerably between language communities, not least in their linguistic form. In most societies, however, there appears to be a correlation between more formal styles and a higher level of overt politeness. DISCOURSE COMPETENCE : is used to refer to two related, but distinct abilities. Textual discourse competence refers to the ability to understand and construct monologues or written texts of different genres, such as narratives, procedural texts, expository texts, persuasive (hortatory) texts, descriptions and others
          1. CONCLUSIONS.
            1. Based on the study, it should be affirmed, that we are primarily "social" beings, in the sense that we spend most of our lives with others. It is therefore important to learn to understand each other and function properly in social situations. Certain communication skills help us to improve interpersonal relationships. Linguistic competence, is characterized by the ability of a speaker to produce and interpret verbal signs. Knowledge and appropriate use of the linguistic code allows an individual to create, play and perform an infinite number of sentences. This knowledge and employment are linked to two different modes of language: the language as a system of signs and language in use, in use. The linguistic competence refers to the use of language as an instrument of oral and written communication, representation,
              1. This knowledge and employment are linked to two different modes of language: the language as a system of signs and language in use, in use. The linguistic competence refers to the use of language as an instrument of oral and written communication, representation, interpretation and comprehension of reality, construction and communication of knowledge and of organization and self-regulation of thinking, emotions and behavior.
            1. YOVANNA RAMOS
              1. LINGUISTIC COMPETENCES "In [Noam] Chomsky's theory, our linguistic competence is our unconscious knowledge of languages and is similar in some ways to [Ferdinand de] Saussure's concept of langue, the organizing principles of a language. This term applies to mastering the combination of sounds, syntax and semantics known as the grammar of a language. LEXICAL COMPETENCE: Is the ability to recognize and use words in a language in the way that speakers of the language use them. Lexical competence includes understanding the different relationships among families of words and the common collocations of words. GRAMMATICAL COMPETENCE: Is the ability to recognize and produce the distinctive grammatical structures of a language and to use them effectively in communication. SEMANTIC COMPETENCE: Is the system of linguistic knowledge possessed by native speakers of a language. It is in contrast to the concept of linguistic performance, the way the language system is used in communication.
                1. PHONOLOGICAL COMPENTENCE: is the ability to recognize and produce the distinctive meaningful sounds of a language, including consonants, vowels, tone patterns, intonation patterns, rhythm patterns, stress patterns, any other suprasegmental features that carry meaning. ORTHOGRAPHIC COMPETENCE: s is concerned with the written language and its structure. among them letters, spelling, punctuation, abbreviations, and special symbols. SOCIOLINGUISTIC COMPETENCES Is the ability to interpret the social meaning of the choice of linguistic varieties and to use language with the appropriate social meaning for the communication situation. PRAGMATIC COMPETENCES Refers to the ability to use language appropriately in different social situations and in different circumstances. Discourse competence: is used to refer to two related, but distinct abilities. Textual discourse competence refers to the ability to understand and construct monologues or written texts of different genres,
                2. ALEXA MARIN
                  1. LINGUISTIC COMPETENCES: They relate to the range and quality of knowledge, cognitive organisation, the way this knowledge is stored and its accessibility. LEXICAL COMPETENCE: It is the knowledge of, and ability to use, the vocabulary of a language. It consists of lexical elements (fixed expressions and single word forms) and grammatical elements. GRAMMATICAL COMPETENCE: It is the knowledge of, and ability to use, the grammatical resources of a language. It is the ability to understand and express meaning by producing and recognising well-formed phrases and sentences. SEMANTIC COMPETENCE: It deals with the learner’s awareness and control of the organisation of meaning. There are lexical, grammatical and pragmatic semantics. PHONOLOGICAL COMPETENCE: It involves the knowledge of, and skill in the perception and production of phonemes, allophones, the phonetic composition of words, sentence phonetics and phonetic reduction.
                    1. SOCIOLINGUISTC COMPETENCES: They are the knowledge and skills required to deal with the sociocultural conditions of language use. LINGUISTIC MARKERS OF SOCIAL RELATions: they refer to the use and choice of greetings, address forms, expletives, conventions for turntaking, among others. They depend on factors like the relative status, closeness of relation and register of discourse. POLITENESS CONVENTIONS: They are the set of positive politeness, negative politness, appropiate use of courtesy expressions and impoliteness. They vary from one culture to another and are a frequent source of inter-ethnic misunderstanding. (There are also social conventions, expressions of folk wisdom, register differences, dialect and accent and others) PRAGMATIC COMPETENCES: They are concerned with the functional use of linguistic resources, the mastery of discourse, cohesion and coherence, the identification of text types and forms, irony, and parody.
                  2. JAMES CANTILLO
                    1. THE SEMANTIC COMPETENCE: It can be defined as domestic and intuitive knowledge that human beings have of lexical units of our language and the rules that apply to combine. This inner knowledge is the basis of our ability to produce and interpret any linguistic expression of our language even without having issued or heard before. PHONOLOGICAL COMPETENCE. This criterion assesses that students know and acquire the skill of producing sound units. The descriptors are organized around: a) The articulation joint or skill (position and contact of the voice organs) b) The guided pronunciation: phonemes and their distinctive features, syllabic structure, acentual sequence of words and phonetics of prayers -prosodia
                      1. SPELLING COMPETITION: This criterion assesses that students know the graphic and orthographic conventions of Spanish and learn to use them in writing. The descriptors are organized around: a) The psychomotor ability b) The alphabet / Spanish alphabet (sound-grapheme correspondences, case sensitive) c) The training and separation syllabic (vowels and combinations thereof and the formation of consonant clusters)
                        1. TOEFL
                          1. The TOEFL test measures your ability to use and understand the English language as it's read, written, heard and spoken in the university classroom. As the most accepted English-language test in the world, more than 8,500 universities, agencies, and other institutions in more than 130 countries accept the TOEFL test as part of their admissions criteria, including nearly every college and university in Australia and the UK.
                        2. SOCIOLINGUISTIC COMPETENCE: It is one of the components of communicative competence. It refers to a person's ability to produce and understand utterances appropriately in different contexts of use, where variable factors such as the status of the participants and the relationship between them are given. LINGUISTIC MARKERS: They are specific to each language that are helpful for the sender know that the message is being transmitted correctly words.
                          1. IELTS
                            1. The .International English Language Testing System (IELTS) assesses the English language proficiency of people who want to study or work where English is used as the language of communication. IELTS test takers can choose between two versions of the test – Academic or General Training – depending on their academic or professional aims, or visa requirements
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