Mind Map by heavenstaar, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by heavenstaar about 5 years ago


psychology mind map on learning

Resource summary

1 Definitions - Learning - any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience. Conditioning involves learning connections between events that occur in an organism’s environment
1.1 Pavlov's Classical Conditioning - refers to a type of learning in which a stimulus gets the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by a physically natural stimulus
1.1.1 Processing - Acquisition – acquiring the new behaviour, usually something novel, unusual or very intense that results in classical conditioning. Timing is another factor. Stimulus contiguity – how close the stimuli are together. Extinction: Presenting a CS repeatedly, after conditioning, without the US, resulting in no response. Spontaneous Recovery: Recovery of an extinguished CR after a period of nonexposure to the CS More processing - Stimulus generalization: Responding to a new stimulus in a way similar to the response produced by an established CS In this case, a similar stimulus leads to a similar CR. & Stimulus Discrimination: Responding differently to a new stimulus than one responds to established CS
2 Operant Conditioning is a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences of their own voluntary actions
2.1 Acquisition In operant conditioning, acquisition also refers to the initial stage of learning a new response.
2.2 Extinction: Response is no longer followed by a reinforcer.
2.3 Reinforcement occurs when an event following a response increases a person or animal’s tendency to make that response.
3 Reinforcement - Positive = something good is given Negative = something bad is removed.
3.1 Punishment : Consequences that decrease the likelihood of responding in a similar way again
3.1.1 Side Effects - Physical Punishment is associated with poor quality parent-child relationships, elevated aggression, delinquency and behavioural problems in children.
3.2 Schedules of reinforcement - Ratio = number of responses e.g. number of lever presses. Inverval = time on the clock e.g. number of minutes Fixed = always the same e.g. every 10 lever presses/minutes. Variable = changes (around an average amount) e.g. an average of every 10 lever presses or minutes
4 Bandura: Researcher who studied effects of viewing adult aggressive behaviour on children •Study involved film of adult hitting “Bobo” doll •Children acted out what they observed •Adult was either praised or punished - more likely to follow if adult praised for aggression.
5 Observational Learning - Learning that occurs as a result of observing the experiences of others
5.1 Mirror neurons are neurons that are activated by performing an action or by seeing another monkey or person perform the same action.
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