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Hazard Management

Description

Mind Map on Hazard Management, created by aira mumin on 11/20/2015.
aira mumin
Mind Map by aira mumin, updated more than 1 year ago
aira mumin
Created by aira mumin over 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Hazard Management
  1. volcanoes
    1. prediction (monitoring)
      1. measure gas emissions/land swelling/ground water levels
        1. correlation spectrometer - before eruption gases(S02) given off - can be used to detect gases
          1. tilt meters - detect slight changes in landscape/ground inflation/deformation as a result of magma accumulation
            1. GPS - used to detect movements
            2. study eruption history
              1. thermal imaging cameras (changes in temp indicate vol activity)
                1. seismometers - used to detect earthquakes before eruption
                2. protection/preparation
                  1. build artificial barriers to slow down lava
                    1. Hawaiian Islands
                    2. during:dig trenches to divert flow - Mt Etna
                      1. before: hazard assessment - identify areas of greatest risk & set up exclusion zones
                        1. following assessments - land use planning can be applied: sufficient open space keep people away from aftershock damage from buildings
                    3. earthquakes
                      1. prediction
                        1. study groundwater levels/release of radon gas/animal behaviour/local magnetic fields
                          1. map activity of previous earthquakes
                            1. seismometer/tilt meters can be used to predict impact of eqs - produce hazard zone map
                            2. study earthquake history
                            3. protection/preparation
                              1. disaster plan - upgrading homes (fireproof). planning of evacuations, designating public shelters (gov strategies)
                                1. Education/training: educate people in survival strategies & have regular earthquake drills (individual strategies)
                                  1. assemble earthquake kits (water/food/first aid/torch/fire extinguisher)
                                2. build hazard resistant structures/strict building regulations
                                  1. concrete counter weights on top
                                    1. steel cross-bracing to hold building
                                      1. rubber shock absorbers in foundation
                                      2. fire prevention - 'smart meters' cut off gas (Tokyo) - network systems inform employees to turn off main pipelines - reducing number of fires
                                        1. modify loss by insurance & aid
                                          1. MEDC - people forced to take out insurance to cover losses
                                            1. LEDC - international emergency aid offered for only short term - long term aid to support long term resettlement of population, restoration of area's economic base & infrastructure is hard to find
                                      3. tsunami
                                        1. construction of sea walls/breakwaters
                                          1. land use planning supported by insurance
                                            1. increase public awareness (safety routes)
                                              1. invest in tech: DART - Deep Ocean Assessment & Reading of Tsunami (2001) - monitoring systems mainly located in Pacific ocean
                                                1. However it's unreliable financial cost of maintaining systems are high - unsustainable long term solution for tsunami warnings
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