The Muscular System

tnewla15
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Mind Map on The Muscular System, created by tnewla15 on 12/05/2013.

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tnewla15
Created by tnewla15 almost 6 years ago
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The Muscular System
1 Types of muscles
1.1 Smooth: Involuntary (no control), found in hollow organs (digestive tract), fatigue slowly
1.2 Cardiac: Heart, intertwined, cells act as 1 unit, fatigues slowly, more mitochondria
1.3 Skeletal: Voluntary, connected to skeleton, allows for movement (contract, relax)
2 Functions
2.1 Body movement: Muscles consciously controlled attached to bones, CNS instructs them to contract=movement
2.2 Adequate posture: Muscles always work to ensure maintain good posture
2.3 Essential bodily functions: Involuntary muscles (no conscious control), always function, e.g. heart, blood vessels, digestive organs
3 Muscle fibre arrangement
3.1 Muscles made up of many muscular cells (fibres) joined and they way they're joined is determined by the function of the muscle
4 Muscle fibre types
4.1 Intro: Muscles are made of a number of fibres joined. The way they're joined is determined by the function of the muscle
4.1.1 Pennate: Run at angles to tendons, little mobility, designed for strength, more pennation = slower muscle but more force, allows more fibres packed in, force increases by proportional amount, 3 categories
4.1.1.1 Unipennate: Calf muscles, quads
4.1.1.2 Bipennate: Rectus femoris, dorsiflexors, gastrocnemius
4.1.1.3 Multipennate muscles: Deltoid, plantar flexors
4.1.2 Fusiform: Fibres run the length of muscle belly, force over large range, mobility over strength, fibres run same direction as tendon, few fusiform, biceps brachii
4.1.3 Radiate: Mobile, produce large force and power, radiate from one main tendon, pectoralis major
5 Control of muscles
5.1 Types of contractions
5.1.1 Isotonic: Most common, length changes as force is developed, muscle length shortens = concentric contraction, muscle lengthens = eccentric contraction, squats
5.1.2 Isometric: Generates force without changing length, causes stress of CV system (blood vessels constricted by contraction of muscles (causing abrupt fatigue), plank hold
5.1.3 Isokinetic:Contract at constant speed, only occurs if weight or force being moved alters while the muscle is contracting (usually through weight training/rehab)
5.2 Motor units:"The nerve and muscle fibre it controls"m muscles contain 100's, each fibre has a nerve, this muscle allows the muscle to alter the amount of force applied overall by changing the number of muscle fibres being activated
5.3 All or nothing
5.3.1 Muscle fibres contract completely or not at all, all fibres in a motor unit contact at the same time, amount of force generated depends on number of motor units activated, NS controls pull/force exerted by a muscle, electrical impulse must reach a certain threshold before all fibres of the motor unit contract at the same time and as forcefully as possible (none will contract until), once impulse surapsses the threshold, ATP stored in the muscle is split and the energy realeased allows a muscular contraction
5.4 Reciprocal inhibition
5.4.1 The process of the agonist contracting and its opposite muscle (the antagonist) relaxing
6 Sarcomeres
6.1 Function: The repeating subunits of a myofibril and the smallest unit of muscle contraction. Muscles contract = thick filaments (myosin) pull the thin filaments (actin) towards the M-line. This results in the muscle fibres shortening causing the muscle to contract and exert its force/strength

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