22.214.171.124 Enables implementation
of most appropriate
126.96.36.199.1 e.g. Australian Bandicoots
- breeding high, but
predation by cats issue.
curve: type 1,
2, or 3?
Figure 1 : Idealized survivorship curves
In Type I survivorship, mortality rates are low until late in life. In Type II survivorship, a constant proportion of individuals die throughout the life cycle. In Type III survivorship, juvenile mortality is very high; individuals surviving past that initial phase have higher survivorship
1.2.2 Population variability analysis
188.8.131.52 Assigning priority
184.108.40.206.1 "Red Data Books" label species: extinct, extinct in wild, critically
endangered, endangered, near threatened, least concern, data deficient,
220.127.116.11.1.1 Allows for identification of where conservation is required.
18.104.22.168 Species diversity indices analyse
species richness and relative
abundance, helps identify where
conservation is required.
22.214.171.124.1 rarity doesn't necessary
equal under threat- rarity
1.3.1 Habitat protaction and management
126.96.36.199 Protective legislation- African elephant: Placed on
CITES Appendix 1 making ivory trade illegal
188.8.131.52.1 Populationhad declined by 85& '73-'87, but mostly
revived due to decline in poaching.
1.3.2 Restoration ecology
184.108.40.206 Reducing pollutants, planting
roughage for nests/steams for
220.127.116.11.1 Negative feedbacks: benefitting
one species to detriment of other.
of invasive species.
1.3.4 Re-introductions: deliberate movement of
individuals back into natural range - can be linked
to ex-situ breeding mehtods.
18.104.22.168 Golden lion Tamarin Monkey:
Bred in captivity when numbers
dropped to c.100. Re-released in
wild (Brazil) and now 800. Also
education for local people
1.3.5 Red howler monkey, French Guiana
22.214.171.124 Translocation: original area
flooded so some individuals
removed and released at
another similar site
126.96.36.199.1 Successful, but many examples not succesful due to
competition, predation, pathogens etc.
188.8.131.52 Population reinforcement: Local
hunting had reduced the local
population density of howler monkeys
at release site.
2 Ex situ
2.1 Should always play a secondaty role to in situ.
2.1.1 Compliments in situ conservation with abilty to re-introduce
animals bred in captivity.
184.108.40.206 Captive breeding -
ethical issues. But living
collections may provide
last refuge for
which only exist in
220.127.116.11.1 Advantages: reintroductions, reduced infant mortality, less need for
translocation, maximising genetic variability through selective breeding.
18.104.22.168.1.1 Disadvantages: May threaten wild pop., ecological requirements not
met, limits of space, loss of genetic diversity, hybridisation, human
22.214.171.124.2 Failure: Sumatran
Rhino: 40 taken into
zoo for breeding, 20
died and none were
born over 17yrs.
2.2 "Living collections" e.g. zoo's, aquariums, botanic gardens.
2.3 "Banking biodiversity" e.g. Kew seed banks (1.5 billion seeds),
'Frozen Ark' cryogenic freezing of animal cells.
2.4 Red Kite: re-introduced to England from Europe after
almost becoming extinct due to hunting and habitat
depletion in 19th century.