Carbonyl Compounds

Fangirl.Ana
Mind Map by Fangirl.Ana, updated more than 1 year ago
Fangirl.Ana
Created by Fangirl.Ana about 5 years ago
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Here is a mindmap for the carbonyl compounds covered in the A levels. Happy revising!

Resource summary

Carbonyl Compounds
1 Aldehydes
1.1 Prep.
1.1.1 Primary alcohol + ox. agent --> aldehyde + water
1.1.1.1 Ethanol + [O] -> ethanal
1.1.2 Products should be distilled as they form
1.1.2.1 Oxidation under reflux gives carboxylic acid
1.1.2.1.1 Ethanal + [O] -> ethanoic acid
1.2 Reduction:
1.2.1 NaBH4 or LiAlH4
1.2.2 Al + red. agent --> primary alcohol
1.2.2.1 Ethanal + 2[H] -> ethanol
1.2.3 Can be thought of as nucleophilicaddition
1.3 Nucleophilic addition:
1.3.1 HCN: Sn1 mechanism (formation of carbocation)
1.4 Tests:
1.4.1 2,4- DNPH
1.4.1.1 Positive, pulpy orange ppt
1.4.1.2 -hydrazine to -hydrazone
1.4.2 Felhing's:
1.4.2.1 From blue to brick red on warming
1.4.2.1.1 Cu(2+) to Cu(+) ions
1.4.2.2 Positive
1.4.3 Tollens':
1.4.3.1 Positive
1.4.3.2 Silver mirror formed on warming
1.4.3.2.1 Carboxylate ion formed as organic product
2 Ketones
2.1 Prep.
2.1.1 Secondary alcohol + ox. agent --> ketone + water
2.2 Reduction:
2.2.1 Ketone + 2[H] -> secondary alcohol
2.2.1.1 Propanone + 2[H] -> propan-2-ol
2.3 Nucleophilic addition:
2.3.1 Sn1 addition of HCN
2.4 Tests:
2.4.1 2,4- DNPH
2.4.1.1 Positive, pulpy orange ppt
2.4.1.2 -hydrazine to -hydrazone
2.4.2 Tollens':
2.4.2.1 Negative
2.4.2.2 No change
2.4.3 Fehling's
2.4.3.1 Negative
2.4.3.2 No change
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