Chemical Reactions Lab

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Chemistry Lab Mind Map on Chemical Reactions Lab, created by mallenhb on 12/08/2013.

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mallenhb
Created by mallenhb almost 6 years ago
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Chemical Reactions Lab
1 three types of reactions
1.1 precipiatation
1.2 redox reactions
1.2.1 combination reactions: X+Y=Z
1.2.2 decomposition reactions: Z= X+Y
1.2.3 displacement reactions: X+YZ=XZ+Y
1.2.3.1 main focus of the lab was single displacement
1.2.3.2 types of displacement reactions
1.2.3.2.1 metal and an aqueous solution of a strong acid
1.2.3.2.2 metal displacing a second metal from solution of second metal's ions
1.3 acid-base reactions
2 key terms
2.1 oxidation
2.1.1 loss of electrons
2.1.2 reducing agent since it causes a reduction
2.2 reduction
2.2.1 gain of electrons
2.2.2 oxidizing agent since it causes an oxidation
2.3 oxidation number
2.3.1 charge each atom would have if all shared electrons were transferred to the atom that more strongly attracts the electrons
2.3.2 rules
2.3.2.1 oxidation # for an atom in elemental form is always 0
2.3.2.2 oxidation # for an element in a monoatomic ion is the same as the charge (ex: O2-)
2.3.2.3 sum of oxidation numbers in neutral covalent/ ionic compound is 0
2.3.2.4 rules for oxidation numbers in compounds or polyatomic ions
2.3.2.4.1 F is -1
2.3.2.4.2 Group 1A metals are +1
2.3.2.4.3 Group 2A metals are +2
2.3.2.4.4 O is -1 in peroxides and -2 in all other compounds (except when bounded to F
2.3.2.4.5 H is =1 in all compounds with metals or boron, but +1 in compounds with nonmetals
2.3.2.4.6 Group 7A metals (halogens) are -1 when bonded with metals, nonmetals, and other halogens lower in the group (except O is -2 when bonded to halogens except F
2.4 molecular equaiton
2.4.1 shows all of the reactants & products as if they were intact, undissociated compounds
2.5 ionic equaiton
2.5.1 shows all the soluble ionic substances dissociated into their component ions
2.6 net ionic equaiton
2.6.1 eliminates all spectator ions and shows reactions in simplest form
3 activity series
3.1
4 balancing a redox rection
4.1 steps:
4.1.1 1) determine the oxidation numbers of all elements in the reactant and products
4.1.2 2) identify the oxidized and the reduced species from the changes in oxidation numbers and electrons to the now two separate equations in order to make the charges balanced
4.1.3 3) balance number of electrons gained and lost (reduction reactions are always multiplied by 2)
4.1.4 4) add the oxidation and reduction reactions together to cancel electrons
4.1.5 5) add back in the additional atoms for the balance of charge and mass

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