Moral Development

Helen Li
Mind Map by Helen Li, updated more than 1 year ago
Helen Li
Created by Helen Li over 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Moral Development, created by Helen Li on 12/11/2013.

Resource summary

Moral Development
1 Morality: Biological perspective
1.1 rooted in human nature
1.2 reciprocity and exchange
1.3 empathy and self-sacrifice
1.4 biased to help family members - continue bloodline
1.5 investing time and effort for own people
1.6 originated from hunter & gatherer societies
1.7 BRAIN AREAS
1.7.1 PFC - ventromedial area
1.7.2 orbitofrontal cortex
2 Milller & Bersoff: What should Ben do?
2.1 conflict between personal responsibility and responsibility to society
3 Morality: Societal Norms perspective
3.1 Child's characteristics
3.2 Parent characteristics
3.3 Parental style of discipline
3.4 Child's view of misdeed and reasonableness of parental demands
3.5 internalization of societal standards
4 Emotions drive behaviour
4.1 ROLE OF GUILT
4.1.1 not the only motivation for moral behaviour tho!
4.1.2 guilt leads us to make amends, repair damage from our actions
5 INDUCTIvE DISCIPLINE
5.1 OR harsh discipline
5.2 OR love withdrawal
5.3 induction: adult helps child notice others' feelings and effects of their own msbehaviour
5.4 providing reasonable and appropriate explanations
6 PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (GUILT)
6.1 form superego by conscience
6.2 want to sexually possess opposite-sex parent
6.3 fear of being destroyed by opposite-sex parent channeled into superego
6.3.1 leads to conformity to societal rules/moral behaviour
6.4 internalize rules out of fear and protection of oursevles
7 Morality: Behaviourism
7.1 we do RIGHT becuz we're REWARDED for it
7.2 we do WRONG becuz we're PUNISHED for it
7.3 reinforcement/punishment must be learnt over time
7.4 some behaviours we avoid even tho we've never done it before!
7.5 some engage in moral behaviour despite great personal risk
8 EFFECTS OF PUNISHMENT
8.1 to foster long-term goals - better to use warm but firm way of discipline
8.2 harsh and violent punishment only makes it more likely child will do it again
8.3 Spanking: only modelling aggression!
8.4 frequency and severity of punishment can ESCALATE over time
8.4.1 transmit cross-generations
8.5 often higher for low SES families
8.6 African-Americans see corporal punishment differently
8.6.1 children see it as parent caring for them
8.6.2 it's for your own good rather than personal act of aggression
9 SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
9.1 children learn thru modelling
9.2 3 aspects of models most likely to be modelled
9.2.1 Warm, responsiveness
9.2.2 Competence & power
9.2.3 Consistency between assertions & behaviour
9.3 models most influential in early years
10 ALTERNATIVES to punishment
10.1 warm parent-child relationship
10.2 consistency
10.3 explanations
10.4 Some cases: direct violation of norms is good!
10.5 parents are not always right!
11 Morality: Cognitive-Developmental
11.1 Heteronomous morality (5-8 yrs)
11.1.1 see rules as handed down to them by supreme authority (adults)
11.1.2 rules are ABSOLUTE
11.2 Morality of cooperation (9-10 yrs)
11.2.1 see rules as flexible rather than fixed
11.2.2 settle conflicts in mutually beneficial ways
11.2.3 ideal reciprocity
11.3 children capable of seeing ppl's intentions as bad based on their behaviour
11.4 focus on punishment, consequences, concrete things
12 HEINZ DILEMMA
12.1 man wants to save wife dying from cancer
12.2 druggist refuses to sell drugs to him for cheaper and won't let man pay him back later
12.3 Man tries all other methods of raising money but no time
12.4 desperate - he breaks into drug store and steals drug to save his wife
12.5 WAS IT RIGHT OF HIM TO DO IT?
13 KOHLBERG'S STAGES
13.1 Preconventional level
13.1.1 1. Punishment & obedience
13.1.2 2. Naive-hedonistic
13.2 Conventional level
13.2.1 3. Good boy good girl
13.2.2 4. Social order maintaining
13.3 Postconventional level
13.3.1 5. Social contract/legalistic
13.3.2 6. Self-chosen ethical principles
13.4 ppl also use other strategies
13.4.1 relying on institution
13.4.2 talking with others
13.4.3 religious beliefs
13.5 Influences
13.5.1 cognitive maturity
13.5.2 perspective-taking
13.5.3 reorganization of thought
13.6 Challenges to Kohlberg's theory
13.6.1 Pragmatic approach - each person makes moral judgments on varying levels of maturity
13.6.2 Alot of ppl just act first then apply moral judgments later
13.6.3 some use moral judgments for immoral purposes
14 Moral dumbfounding
14.1 feels smth is wrong but can't explain why
15 SEX DIFFERENCES IN MORALITY
15.1 Carol Gilligan argued Kohlberg underestimated girls' morality
15.2 girls - more sensitive, caring - more likely to have higher morality
15.3 most research do NOT support her claims however
16 Influences of Moral Reasoning
16.1 Personality
16.2 Culture
16.3 Childrearing practices
16.4 Peer interaction
16.5 Schooling
16.6 Moral Reasoning & Behavour
16.6.1 Reasoning doesn't always translate to behaviour!
16.6.2 More likely to take action if moral goals are personally relevant to us
16.6.3 parenting strategies: launch conscience development + empathy early on
16.6.4 Fear learning environments
17 RELIGIOUS INVOLVEMENT
17.1 those involved in religious communities have more opportunity to get involved in community services
17.2 lower levels of drug/alcohol abuse
17.3 EXCEPTION: religious cults
18 Morality: Domain approach
18.1 Moral vs Social Conventional
18.1.1 know that breaking rules in moral domain is more serious than in social conventional
18.2 Relation of Personal & Moral domains
18.2.1 reach adolescence: increasingly don't want parents to interfere with personal domain
18.2.2 personal choice enhances moral understanding
18.2.3 Personal choices in social conventional domain can have MORAL consequences
18.3 Enter text here
19 SELF-CONTROL
19.1 inhibiting urges that violate moral rules
19.2 resistance to temptation
19.3 COMPLIANCE
19.4 DELAY OF GRATIFICATION
19.5 Walter Mischel experiment
19.5.1 10 mini marshmallows later OR 2 mini marshmallows now
20 AGGRESSION
20.1 PHSYICAL
20.2 VERBAL
20.3 RELATIONAL
20.4 Early & Middle Childhood
20.4.1 physical aggression gives way to verbal
20.4.2 girls use relational tactics
20.5 Adolescence
20.5.1 rise in delinquency
20.5.2 rise in autonomy desires
20.5.3 SES and ethnicity = strong predictors of arrests
20.6 STABILITY of aggression
20.6.1 Kindergarteners - high, moderate, low levels determine stability of aggression in later years
20.6.2 childrearing
20.6.3 SES, environment, conflict-ridden
20.7 FAMILY & AGGRESSION
20.7.1 Family = training ground for aggression (becomes vicious cycle)
20.7.2 1) coercive parental discipline
20.7.3 2) Coercive give + take between parent and child
20.7.4 3) Long-term consequences
20.7.5 4) Conflict resolution
20.8 Social-cog deficits
20.8.1 overly high self-esteem
20.8.2 cog distortion techniques to validate bad behaviour
20.9 Community & Cultural Influences
20.9.1 poverty-stricken neighbourhoods
20.9.2 high adult criminality
20.9.3 ethnic + political prejudices
20.10 INTERVENTIONS
20.10.1 parent training
20.10.2 social-cog interventions
20.10.2.1 pay more attention to social cues
20.10.2.2 zero tolerance policies
20.10.3 comprehensive approaches
20.10.3.1 eg EQUIP
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