Notre Dame

CECILIA SAAVEDRA
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architecture

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CECILIA SAAVEDRA
Created by CECILIA SAAVEDRA almost 4 years ago
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Notre Dame

Annotations:

  • Maurice de Sully bishop (1160 - 1196)
1 1163 -1182 Louis VII
1.1 1163-1182 : construction of the choir and its double deambulatory.
1.1.1 The first anonymous builder began with a double side aisle plan without a salient transept (the same plan used in the previous cathedral, Saint Stephen), a four story construction with tribunes, large, 32.5 metre sexpartite arches, predominantly horizontal lines, original archwork in the curved part of the deambulatory, alternating “strong” and “weak” pillars between the first and second aisles
2 1182-1190 Phillipe August
2.1 construction of the last three bays in the nave, the side aisles and the tribunes.
3 1190-1225 Phillipe August
3.1 edification of the façade foundation and the first two bays in the nave, connection of the two bays to the upper façade and the Gallery of Kings.
4 1225-1250 . San Louis
4.1 upper gallery and two towers on the façade, modification and expansion of the upper windows and fitting out the nave side chapels between the flying buttresses’ abutments (fourth builder).
4.1.1 The façade is an imposing, simple and harmonious mass whose strength and sombre grandeur is based on interplay between vertical and horizontal lines: four powerful buttresses that spring up to the top of the towers, lifting them heavenwards. They symbolically let us know that this cathedral-church was built for God. two wide horizontal strips seem to bring the building back down to our mortal earth. This cathedral-church is also a cathedral for men. Its dimensions are impressive: - 41 m wide - 43 m high up to the base of the towers - 63 m up to the top of the towers
4.1.1.1 A look at its symbolism could help us understand the meaning of the façade: - the square stands for created, limited space. - the circle stands for the boundless, the perfect figure without beginning or end, the image of God. God’s world breaking into the created world, God becoming man. That is the mystery of the Incarnation. The heads of the Virgin and Jesus fall directly into the centre of the West rose window. Mary’s acceptance allowed God, as Jesus, to come into the mortal world, and Mary presents her Son to the city.
4.1.1.1.1 At the centre of the façade, near the gallery of the Virgin, a large rose measuring 9.60 m in diameter, stands at the centre of the façade, forming a halo above a statue of the Virgin with Child between two angels. On the right and the left, there are statues of Adam and Eve, which remind us of original sin. These statues were rebuilt by Viollet-le-Duc in the 19th century. Under the balustrade, there is a wide horizontal frieze, the gallery of kings, a row of 28 statues representing 28 generations of kings of Judah, descendants of Jesse and ancestors of Mary and Jesus. This part of the façade shows that Mary, a mortal woman born of the human race, gave birth to Jesus, who was both man and God. These painted statues were added to the cathedral in the first third of the 13th century and quickly became familiar representations of the kings of France. From 1284 onwards, they were presented in this way. And this tradition will last, this is why it was destructed in the Revolution
4.1.1.1.1.1 On the lower level, under the gallery of kings, there are three large portals which are not exactly identical.The central portal, known as the Portal of the Last Judgement, is taller and wider than the others, the Portal of Saint Anne (to the right, or the south) and the Portal of the Virgin (to the left and the North). The latter portal is topped by a triangular gable*. These portals are decorated with a multitude of characters and surrounded by the jambs* featuring large statues which were restored in the 19th century by Viollet-le-Duc.
4.1.1.1.1.1.1 The buttresses feature niches that house four statues restored by Viollet-le-Duc’s workshop. The left (North) buttress depicts the deacon Saint Stephen, the right (South) buttress shows a bishop, most likely Saint Denis, and the buttresses on the sides of the central portal portray two allegories, the Synagogue on the right and the Church on the left. This façade springs directly up from the ground, serving as a masterpiece of balance and harmony
5 Rose Window

Annotations:

  •  The South Rose Window,  This rosette is dedicated to the New Testament. It has eighty-four panes divided into four circles. The first one has twelve medallions and the second has twenty-four. A third circle is made up of quadrilobes, and the fourth circle has twenty-four trilobes medallions. This window features the symbolic number four, along with its multiples, twelve and twenty-four. This rose window has been damaged many times over the centuries. After being propped up since 1543 because the masonry had settled, it was restored between 1725 and 1727 by Guillaume Brice, under Boffrand’s supervision. However, as the work was poorly executed and the window was severely altered in a fire in the archbishopric during the 1830 revolution, it had to be rebuilt again. This work was begun in 1861 by Viollet-le-Duc. Since the masonry was sagging excessively, he rebuild the south counter-brace façade completely and turned the rosette 15° to give it a vertical axis and a horizontal axis, thereby consolidating the stone lacework. Master glassworker Alfred Gérente restored the 13th century stained glass and put the missing medallions back together in the spirit of overall authenticity. Saint Laurent reconnaissable au gril, instrument de son supplice©Daniel Dumolard However, the succession of work on the rosette completely disrupted panel arrangement. The designer’s original plans have gone undiscovered to this day. The twelve Apostles, who were originally part of the first circle, are now distributed between the two circles, amidst other figures. In the four circles, you can see Saints and Martyrs traditionally honoured in France, as well as the wise virgins: Lawrence, a deacon holding the grill he was martyred with;Denis, the first bishop of Paris carrying his head;Pothin, the bishop of Lyon;Marguerite and a dragon;Blandine and two lions;George;Ambrose;Eustacius… In the fourth circle, there are around twenty angels carrying a candle, two crowns and a censer, as well as scenes from the Old and New Testaments (in the third and fourth circles): the flight into Egypt, the healing of a paralytic, the Judgement of Solomon, the Annunciation and more. Also in the third circle and part of the fourth circle, there is a series of nine scenes from the life of Saint Matthew displaying precious, well-conserved workmanship. Their origin is unknown, but experts agree that they date from the last quarter of the 12th century. At the edges, there are two corner pieces representing: the Descent into Hell to the east, surrounded by Moses and Aaron (at the top) and the temptation of Adam and Eve (at the bottom);the resurrection of Christ to the west, with Saints Peter and Paul (on top), and Saints Madeleine and John (at the top). The central medallion probably originally depicted God in majesty. In 1726, after the window had disappeared after two hundred years of ruin, it was replaced by the coat of arms of Cardinal de Noailles, who was archbishop of Paris at the time, who had spent 80,000 pounds to restore the rose window. Viollet-le-Duc, through Gérente’s work, decided to depict the Christ of the Apocalypse there: the sword coming out of the Saviour’s mouth symbolises His word separating error from truth. Stars are shining on the wounds on his hands, while temple lamps are lit around Him. Under the rosette, the heavenly court is represented by the sixteen prophets portrayed under the large windows of the bay, which were painted in the 19th century by Alfred Gérente, under Viollet-le-Duc’s supervision. The architect drew inspiration from Chartres Cathedral, placing the four great prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel)carrying the four evangelists (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John) on their shoulders, at the centre. This window echoes the reflections of Bertrand, bishop of Chartres in the 13th century, on the connection between the Old and New Testaments: We are all dwarves standing on the shoulders of giants. We see more than they do, not because our vision is clearer there or because we are taller, but because we are lifted up due to their giant scale.The South Rose Window symbolises Christ triumphant, reigning over Heaven, surrounds byall his witnesses on earth.
5.1 The three rosettes Notre-Dame de Paris are one of the greatest masterpieces of Christianity. The South Rose Window was a gift from the king Saint Louis. It was designed by Jean de Chelles and Pierre de Montreuil1260 as a counterpoint to the North Rose Window, which was built in 1250. Like its north sister, the South Rose Window reached 12.90 metres in diameter and, if you include its bay, a total height of nearly 19 metres.
6 The Portal of the Judgement 1220s-1230s
6.1 It represents the Last Judgement as described in the Gospel of Saint Matthew.
7 The Portal of Saint Anne 1200
7.1 Its tympanum* reuses another tympanum made fifty years earlier for another cathedral (the former Saint Stephen’s cathedral). In its centre, there is a magnificent Virgin with Child in the Romanesque styl
8 The Portal of the Virgin 1210 -1220
8.1 it depicts the death of Mary, her ascension into Heaven and her coronation as Queen of the Heavens
9 The Bells
9.1 The North tower is home to four bells cast in 1856: Angélique-Françoise, 1,915 kg, C-sharp weightin aroun one Kilo each
9.2 South tower is home to the 15th century Emmanuel bell [/Bells] which was recast in 1681 upon the request of Louis XIV who named the bell. It weighs 13 tons and is tuned to F-sharp.
10 The Great Organ
10.1 In 1401, a new organ was built in the stone organ loft above the large west portal. Since then, 50 organists have sat at the keyboard . Over the centuries, the great organ was expanded, restored and reconstructed before taking on its current proportions in the 18th century. With each new era, Notre-Dame’s organ underwent attentive care and was fitted with new stops and technical improvements, although the organ builders tried to keep the best of previous equipment, which is why the organ still features a few medieval pipes today. The great organ survived the tumultuous revolution. In 1868 it would become a full symphonic organ with 86 stops on 5 keyboards and a pedalboard.
11 Cloister Windows 1845 and 1850
11.1 During Lassus and Viollet-le-Duc’s major restoration of the cathedral, sacristy was entirely rebuilt [1] between 1845 and 1850 in a neo-Gothic style on the south side of the choir. The buildings were arranged around a small cloister that allowed access to the cathedral. This cloister’s arcatures were decorated with eighteen glass windows created by Gérente according to Steinheil’s cartoons. These windows represent the Legend of Saint Genevieve. Each window is accompanied by a Latin inscription that narrates the scene. The medallion on the main bay of the cloister portrays the Coronation of the Virgin.
12 XIX c Louis Phillipe
12.1 1844 Violet le Duc
12.1.1 reconstruction of the spire; restoration of the sculptures ; construction of the new sacristy; installation of new windows by great master glassworkers; refurbishment of the central portal to the pre-Soufflot state; reconstitution of part of the Treasury and the furniture; wall paintings in the side chapels; complete repair of the great organ.
13 REVOLUTION
13.1 Disassembly of the 13th century spire; Destruction of the 28 statues from the Gallery of Kings; Destruction of all the major portal statues except the Virgin from the Cloister portal trumeau.