Inside the atom

Beth Ritchie
Mind Map by Beth Ritchie, updated more than 1 year ago
Beth Ritchie
Created by Beth Ritchie over 6 years ago
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Physics Mind Map on Inside the atom, created by Beth Ritchie on 12/17/2013.
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Inside the atom
1 Structure
1.1 So small, need an electron microscope to see them
1.2 Alpha scattering investigation - Rutherford
1.2.1 Showed
1.2.1.1 Positive nucleus
1.2.1.1.1 Protons
1.2.1.1.2 Neutrons
1.2.1.2 Electrons surrounding nucleus
1.2.1.2.1 Negative charge (-1.6x10^-19 C)
1.2.1.2.2 Held by electrostatic attraction
1.2.2 Procedure
1.2.2.1 Alpha particles at gold foil
1.2.2.2 Most went through undetected
1.2.2.3 Some were deflected back at large angles
1.2.2.4 Small number deflected backwards
1.2.2.5 Enter text here
2 Isotopes
2.1 Different numbers of neutrons
2.2 Nucleon number - Protons and neutrons, mass number
3 Specific charge
3.1 Charge/Mass
4 Strong nuclear force
4.1 Force holding nuclei together
4.2 Overcomes electrostatic force of repulsion between protons
4.3 Keeps protons and neutrons together (in stable nuclei)
4.4 Range no more than 3-4fm
4.4.1 Diameter of small nucleus
4.5 Has the same effect on two protons as on two neutrons
4.6 Attractive force from 3-4fm down to about 0.5fm
4.6.1 At separation smaller than this, it is repulsive and prevents protons and neutrons being pushed into eachother
5 Radioactive decay
5.1 Alpha radiation
5.1.1 Helium nucleus released (2 p 2 n)
5.2 Beta radiation
5.2.1 Fast moving electrons
5.2.1.1 Charge equal and opposite to the proton
5.2.2 Neutron becomes a proton
5.2.3 Antineutrino emitted
5.3 Gamma radiation
5.3.1 EM radiation
5.3.2 Can pass through thick metal plates
5.3.3 No mass or charge
5.3.4 Emitted from a nucleus with too much energy, after alpha or beta emission
6 Elusive particle
6.1 Energy spectrum of beta particles measured
6.1.1 Energy appeared not to be conserved
6.1.1.1 Actually carried away by particles
6.2 Particles were called neutrinos or anti neutrinos
6.3 Detected due to their interaction with cadmium nuclei in a large tank of water
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