Second Language Acquisition (Savannah Davey)

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Second Language Acquisition (Savannah Davey)
1 Interlanguage Theory (60)
1.1 Selinker's hypothesis
1.2 "Learner's language should be viewed as creative, with rules unique to itself, and not just a borrowed or incomplete form of the target language" (60).
1.2.1 Imperfect, but represents a "learner variety of the target language" (60).
1.2.1.1 Draws from:
1.2.1.1.1 Rules of their own language
1.2.1.1.2 A general knowledge about the way languages work
1.2.1.1.3 Rules of the new language, acquired gradually.
1.3 As I have previously expressed interest in, I think the acceptance of dialect and language blending in the classroom will build confidence and skills.
1.3.1 Illustrates the mixing elements of both languages (existing and currently acquiring). (http://sychopedagogytorres.blogspot.com)
2 Krashen's Theories (2)
2.1 Affective Filter Hypothesis (61)
2.1.1 "Addresses emotional variables, including anxiety, motivation, and self-confidence" (61).
2.1.1.1 Incredibly important because these factors can disrupt or support language acquisition input - resulting in an increase or decrease in skills (61).
2.1.2 Can be applied in classroom through monitoring student responses (positive or negative) and offering words of encouragement to students at every stage.
2.1.2.1 Mr. Chris is a special education teacher who spends the first 10 minutes of class to individually encourage and support his students - several who are apraxic. ( http://newschannel20.com)
2.2 Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis (61)
2.2.1 "Learning is 'knowing about' a language (formal knowledge). Acquisition is an unconscious process that occurs when language is used for real communication" (61).
2.2.1.1 Krashen considers acquisition to be more important than learning (61).
2.2.2 As previously stated, Kashen suggests a move away from "learning" (like drilling grammar concepts) and this could be implemented by teaching by doing: have students experience/investigate/discuss the content.
2.2.2.1 An immersive linguistic experience like study abroad would be an example of Kashen's "real communication." (https://www.tes.com/lessons/HgTXjDtypI58pg/studying-abroad)
3 Bilingualism and Cognition
3.1 Jim Cummins
3.1.1 Advocate of "critical literacy" as part of reform for Latino achievement - as opposed to "functional literacy" (62).
3.2 His research "furthered the belief that being bilingual is a cognitive advantage and that knowledge of a first language provides a firm foundation for a second acquisition" (62).
3.2.1 Encouraging ELLs with this theory - that they may already have the well-established foundation to build English skills upon. Also shows that you view their native tongue as valuable, which may have been discouraged by previous educators.
3.2.1.1 https://sites.psu.edu/siowfa15/2015/11/26/bilingualism-eases-stroke-recovery/
3.3 Cognitive approach is based on the idea that learners have a significant amount of previous knowledge about the world (61).
4 Meaning-Centered Approaches
4.1 Supported by Halliday (63)
4.1.1 "Language is a complex system for creating meanings through socially shared conventions" (63).
4.1.1.1 "Language is social in that it occurs within a community of users who attach agreed-on meaning to their experiences" (63).
4.2 This theory is based on the input/feedback the receive from others (oral or written) - therefore I think collaborative work done in groups with native speakers would be a way to apply this method while building peer relationships in the classroom.
4.3 http://www.multivu.com
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