1.2 "Learner's language should be viewed as
creative, with rules unique to itself, and not
just a borrowed or incomplete form of the
target language" (60).
1.2.1 Imperfect, but represents a "learner variety of the target language" (60).
22.214.171.124 Draws from:
126.96.36.199.1 Rules of their own language
188.8.131.52.2 A general knowledge about the
way languages work
184.108.40.206.3 Rules of the new language,
1.3 As I have previously expressed interest in, I think the
acceptance of dialect and language blending in the
classroom will build confidence and skills.
1.3.1 Illustrates the mixing elements of both languages (existing and currently acquiring).
2 Krashen's Theories (2)
2.1 Affective Filter Hypothesis
2.1.1 "Addresses emotional variables,
including anxiety, motivation, and
220.127.116.11 Incredibly important because these
factors can disrupt or support language
acquisition input - resulting in an
increase or decrease in skills (61).
2.1.2 Can be applied in classroom through monitoring
student responses (positive or negative) and offering
words of encouragement to students at every stage.
18.104.22.168 Mr. Chris is a special education teacher who spends the first 10 minutes of
class to individually encourage and support his students - several who are
apraxic. ( http://newschannel20.com)
2.2 Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis
2.2.1 "Learning is 'knowing about' a
language (formal knowledge).
Acquisition is an unconscious process
that occurs when language is used for
real communication" (61).
22.214.171.124 Krashen considers
acquisition to be more
important than learning (61).
2.2.2 As previously stated, Kashen suggests a move away from "learning"
(like drilling grammar concepts) and this could be implemented by
teaching by doing: have students experience/investigate/discuss the
126.96.36.199 An immersive linguistic experience like study abroad would be an example of
Kashen's "real communication."
3 Bilingualism and
3.1 Jim Cummins
3.1.1 Advocate of "critical literacy" as
part of reform for Latino
achievement - as opposed to "functional literacy" (62).
3.2 His research "furthered the belief that being bilingual is a
cognitive advantage and that knowledge of a first language
provides a firm foundation for a second acquisition" (62).
3.2.1 Encouraging ELLs with this theory - that they may already have
the well-established foundation to build English skills upon.
Also shows that you view their native tongue as valuable,
which may have been discouraged by previous educators.
3.3 Cognitive approach is based on the idea that
learners have a significant amount of
previous knowledge about the world (61).
4.1 Supported by Halliday (63)
4.1.1 "Language is a complex system for creating
meanings through socially shared
188.8.131.52 "Language is social in that it occurs within a
community of users who attach agreed-on
meaning to their experiences" (63).
4.2 This theory is based on the input/feedback the receive from
others (oral or written) - therefore I think collaborative work
done in groups with native speakers would be a way to apply
this method while building peer relationships in the classroom.