Type 1 Diabetes

mpuusaari
Mind Map by mpuusaari, updated more than 1 year ago
mpuusaari
Created by mpuusaari about 4 years ago
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Mind map on Diabetes
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Type 1 Diabetes
1 Etiology
1.1 Basal Cells in pancreas destroyed

Annotations:

  • Destroyed by bodies T-Cells
1.1.1 Don't produce insulin
1.1.1.1 Can't get Glicose into cells
1.1.1.1.1 Glucose metabolized from other sources
2 Causes
2.1 Genetic Predisposition
2.1.1 Occurs in people under 40
2.2 Exposure to Virus
3 Insulin
3.1 Promotes Glucose transport from bloodstream to cell
3.1.1 Normal Leve: 4-6mmol/L
3.1.1.1 High Insulin >6 mmol/L
3.1.1.1.1 after meal
3.1.1.1.1.1 Stimulates Storage of glucose as glycogen
3.2 Storage
3.2.1 Don't heat/freeze
3.2.2 May be left @ room temp for 30 days
3.2.3 Extra insulin in the fridge
3.2.4 Avoid exposure to sunlight
3.3 Administraion
3.3.1 Not taken Orally
3.3.1.1 SubQ Injection
3.3.1.1.1 Fastest Absorption
3.3.1.1.1.1 Abdomen
3.3.1.1.1.1.1 arm
3.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Thigh
3.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Buttock
3.3.1.1.2 Rotate injection sites
3.3.1.1.3 Don't inject site to be exercises
4 Signs/Symptoms
4.1 Polyuria
4.2 Polydipsia
4.3 Polyphagia
4.4 Weight Loss
4.5 Weakness
4.6 Fatigue
5 Diagnosis
5.1 AIC
5.1.1 Tell's you about glucose over 120 days
5.1.1.1 >6.5%
5.2 Fasting Plasma Glucose
5.2.1 >7 mmol/L
5.3 Random/Casual Plasma Glucose
5.3.1 >11 mmol/L
5.4 2 Hour OGTT leve
5.4.1 Drink sugary orange drink to test pancreas
5.4.1.1 >11.1 mmol/L
6 Drug Therapy
6.1 Exogenous Insulin
6.1.1 From outside source
6.1.1.1 Rapid Acting (Bolus)
6.1.1.1.1 Injected 0-15mins before meal
6.1.1.1.1.1 Onset of Action: 15 mins
6.1.1.1.1.1.1 Lispro/Aspart/Glulisine
6.1.1.2 Short-Acting (Bolus)
6.1.1.2.1 Injected 30-45mins before meal
6.1.1.2.1.1 Onset of Action: 30-60mins
6.1.1.2.1.1.1 "Regular Insulin"
6.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Humulin-R
6.1.1.3 Long-Acting (Basal)
6.1.1.3.1 Injected Once daily (am or pm)
6.1.1.3.1.1 No peak action (steady release)
6.1.1.3.1.1.1 Can't be mixed with any other insulin
6.1.1.3.1.1.1.1 Lantua/Levemir
7 Nutritional Therapy
7.1 Meal Plan
7.1.1 Insulin managed day to day
7.1.1.1 Using Rapid acting insulin
7.1.1.1.1 Make adjustments in dose before meals based on blood glucose
7.1.2 Carbs
7.1.2.1 45-60%
7.1.2.1.1 Less than 10% from sucrose
7.1.3 Fats
7.1.3.1 <35%
7.1.4 Protiens
7.1.4.1 15-20%
7.1.5 Glycemic Index
7.1.5.1 Low GI
7.1.5.1.1 Wheat
7.1.5.1.2 All Bran
7.1.5.1.3 Pasta/Noodle
7.1.5.1.4 Sweet Potatoe
7.1.5.2 Medium GI
7.1.5.2.1 Whole Wheat
7.1.5.2.2 Grapefruit
7.1.5.2.3 Oatmeal
7.1.5.2.4 Brown Rice
7.1.5.3 HIgh GI
7.1.5.3.1 White bread
7.1.5.3.2 Corn Flakes
7.1.5.3.3 Short Grain Rice
7.1.5.3.4 French Fries
7.1.5.3.5 Soda Crackers
8 Exercise Therapy
8.1 Increases Insulin receptor sites
8.1.1 Increases insulin sensitivity
8.2 Lowers blood glucose
8.3 Contributes to weight loss
8.4 Best done after meals
8.4.1 Small carb snack every 30 mins
8.4.1.1 Monitor blood glucose before,during and after
9 Complications
9.1 Diabetic Ketoacidosis
9.1.1 Deficiency of insulin
9.1.1.1 Fats metabolized
9.1.2 Signs
9.1.2.1 Polyuria
9.1.2.2 Polydispia
9.1.2.3 Dehydration
9.1.2.4 Kussmauls respirations
9.2 Hyperglycemia
9.2.1 Causes
9.2.1.1 Food, activity, rest not balanced
9.2.1.2 Sick
9.2.1.3 Under Stress
9.2.2 Signs
9.2.2.1 frequent urination
9.2.2.2 Thirst
9.2.2.3 Fatigue
9.2.3 Treatment
9.2.3.1 Exercise is ketones not in urine
9.2.3.2 Cut down on type of food eating
9.2.3.2.1 Consult dietion
9.3 Hypoglycemia
9.3.1 Causes
9.3.1.1 More activity than usual
9.3.1.2 Not eating on time
9.3.1.3 Too much medication
9.3.1.4 Alcohol
9.3.2 Signs
9.3.2.1 Shaking
9.3.2.2 Confusion
9.3.2.3 Sweaty
9.3.2.4 Tachycardia
9.3.2.5 Weak/drowsy
9.3.3 Treatment
9.3.3.1 15g Glucose
9.3.3.2 6 Lifesavers
9.3.3.3 Wait 15 mins
9.3.3.3.1 Treat again is BS still low
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