ESL APPROACHES & METHODS

Giannina Montoya
Mind Map by Giannina Montoya, updated more than 1 year ago
Giannina Montoya
Created by Giannina Montoya about 4 years ago
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UAB EESL 630 ESL Approaches & Methods Graphic Organizer created by: Giannina Montoya
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ESL APPROACHES & METHODS
1 GRAMMATICAL/ GRAMMAR BASED: Behaviorist, Stimulus-Response, teacher centered, rules+structure of target language
1.1 #1 Grammar-Translation (Historical): Reading+writing, focus on grammar, oral language not as important, rules of grammar taught holistically
1.2 #2 Direct (Historical): No L1 used, total immersion in L2, open-ended response to materials the teacher brings into classroom
1.3 #3 Audiolingual (Historical) Little use of L1, grammar structures carefully sequenced and taught, error correction, drills, and repetitive practice
1.4 IN THE CLASSROOM: Have ELLs: practice drills, rote memorization, memorize how to use nouns, verb, conjugation, adjective use, possessive and pronouns in a non-meaningful way. L1 use prohibited. Example: Students write sentencea from “Don Quixote” 10 times to memorize new words, memorize dialogues from the book and repeat them. Teacher constantly points out errors, giving a prize to ELLs who perfectly memorized it.
2 COMMUNICATIVE: Social Constructivist, guided or independent construction of meaning, student-centered, interaction driven, authentic communication+meaningful acquisition of knowledge, inductive
2.1 #1 Silent Way (Historical): Teacher models talk, repetition, seldom content-based
2.2 #2 Natural Way (Historical) Comprehensible input, minimal error correction/production, L1 accepted, no always content-based
2.3 #3 Suggestopedia (Historical): Relaxed physical setting, minimal error correction, L1 accepted, L1 used for explanations, not always content-based
2.4 #4 Integrated Content-Based: L2 development, Content+Language integration, subject area integrated into thematic units
2.5 #5 Sheltered Instruction: Grade-level modified curriculum, scaffolded instruction, visuals, cooperative learning, guarded vocabulary
2.6 IN THE CLASSROOM: Low anxiety language acquisition environment. Have ELLs: work on scaffolded activities, hands-on activities, with partners/groups/heterogeneous grouping/in collaboration. Teacher does not correct errors explicitly, speaks slow+clear, is a mediator who fosters construction of meaning in context and uses: posted directions, visual cues, videos, electronic devices, music lyrics/rhymes, multilingualism, big books, technology, guarded vocabulary, reduced use of idioms. Example: ELLs read assigned book as a group, pick their favorite character, compare it to someone important in their lives and share it, present it with use of videos, internet, pictures, etc.
3 COGNITIVE: Guided or independent construction of meaning, Inductive, learner-centered, interaction/guidance driven, explicit teaching of learning strategies (LS) in communicative ways
3.1 CALLA: Focus on students’ minds, activities guided by how students think/learn/interact, CALP in L1+L2 related to content areas, prior knowledge, developmentally appropriate language instruction, explicit instruction in LS: Metacognitive, Cognitive, Social/affective, Cross-Linguistic strategies. Phases: Preparation, Presentation, Practice, Evaluation & Expansion
3.2 Cognitive-Social Model of Learning Instructional Innovations in Harmony with CALLA: Language Across the Curriculum, Language Experience Approach, Balanced Reading Approach, Process Writing, Cooperative Learning, Inquiry Approach, Standards-Based Instruction
3.3 ELLs: use KWL chart/questioning/word walls/cooperative learning, explicit LS instruction maximizing content+language objectives, develop academic language skills and literacy through cognitively demanding activities+scaffolded instruction, stay mentally active and reflect on learning activities. Teacher: #1 Selects content aligned with standards+TESOL K-12 Proficiency Standards, provides thoughtful answers requiring higher-order thinking skills. #2 Fosters academic language development in all domains of language. #3 Instructs ELLs in LS. Example: Social Studies middle school teacher encourages ELLs to brainstorm about rights in general and use graphic organizer to classify which rights are humans rights and which are not (metacognitive). ELLs think draw on their learnings in home countries by linking to prior knowledge (cognitive). ELLs share this with peers (Social/Affective). ELLs code-switch with bilingual peers to compare each other’s organizers (Cross-Linguistic)
3.3.1 IN THE CLASSROOM:
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