1.1 Species- Characteristic Behaviour= Shown by
all members of a species
1.2 Individual- Characteristic
one individual to another
3.1 Physiology=Mechanisms of
behaviour (Functioning of
3.2 Psychology=Mechanism of the mind
(Factors which effect development)
3.3 Behaviour= The action an animal
undertakes as a consequence of internal
or external factors.
3.4 Ethology= Study of animal behaviour
3.5 Instinct= An inborn pattern of behaviour that is characteristics of a
species and is often a response to specific environmental stimuli.
3.6 Learnt= Something that is learnt from their parents.
3.7 Phobia=An extreme or irrational
fear of or aversion to something.
3.8 Simple non- association learning= This is where an animals behaviour
changes in the absence of an associated stimulus
3.8.1 Habituation= Animal learns that there is no need to react to a certain
stimulus= reacts less or not at all (Scare crow)
22.214.171.124 Failure to respond to stimuli runs the risk of being killed.
3.8.2 Sensitisation= Increase in the strength of response to a stimulus across repeated
presentations (Lioness may eat quicker when she sees a male)
4.1.1 The origin of species
126.96.36.199 Natural Selection/ Survival of the fittest
4.1.2 Evolutionary mechanisms had shaped
human anatomy and 'mental faculties'
4.2.1 Classical conditioning= Association
between 2 stimuli through reinforcement
188.8.131.52 Conditioned Stimulus= A stimulus that at first fails to get a
particular response, but will then complete the response once
presented with the unconditioned response.
184.108.40.206 Unconditioned Stimulus= A stimulus that gets a
vigorous response without training the animal
220.127.116.11 Test= Dog shown food= Dog Salivates (Unconditioned Stimulus and Response),
Bell Ring= No reaction ( No conditioned response), Bell+Food= Dog Salivates
(Unconditioned Response), Bell rings= Dog salivates ( Conditioned Stimulus and
4.3.1 4 Questions:
18.104.22.168 Function: How does the behaviour impact on the
animals chances of survival and reproduction?
22.214.171.124 Evolution: How does the behaviour compare with similar behaviours in related
species,and how might it have arisen through the process of phylogeny?
126.96.36.199 Causation: What are the stimuli that elicit the response
and how has it been modified by recent learning?
188.8.131.52 Development: How does the behaviour change with age, and what
early experiences are necessary for the behaviour to be shown?
184.108.40.206 How do beewolves find their way home?
220.127.116.11.1 Females when leaving the nest, cover it with sand, Tinbergen
set up landmarks around the nest. He then moved the
landmarks. Wasp searched where landmarks were.
4.4.1 Operant Conditioning= Association between animals
own behaviour and an outcome (trial and error)
18.104.22.168 Skinners Box (Rat)
makes the behaviour
more likely to happen
22.214.171.124 Positive Punishment= Add
something which makes
the behaviour less likely to
happen (Squirt with water)
126.96.36.199 Negative Reinforcement= Take something
away, behaviour more likely to happen (Stop
188.8.131.52 Negative Punishment=
Take away something,
behaviour less likely to
184.108.40.206 1. Occurs during a specific time (Species specific) 2. Is
irreversible 3. Establishes an individuals amimals preference for a
certain species. 4. Some behaviour is affected by imprinting more
than others. 5. Stressful stimuli strengthen imprinting.
220.127.116.11 Split a clutch of eggs, half got raised by mother,
the rest were incubated and saw Konrad on
hatching. The incubated group imprinted on
5 Mating Systems
5.1 Monogamy= one male, one female
5.1.1 Mate guarding hypothesis= If female is
receptive after mating, male will guard his
female (Clown Shrimp)
5.1.2 Male Assistance Hypothesis= If male remains with female to give parental
care then offspring are more likely to survive (Seahorse)
5.1.3 Female Enforced Hypothesis= Females prevent
males obtaining extra mates
5.2 Extra- pair copulation= Sneeky sex
5.2.1 Males Benefit= Get his genes around
5.2.2 Female Benefits= Increased chance of
5.3 Polgyny= One male with 2+ Females (Crocodile, Lions)
5.3.1 Resources Defence= Male defends resources (African Chidid)
5.3.3 Lek= Males come to clearing show off (Grouse)
5.4 Polyandry= Females mate with 2+
5.4.1 Classic= Females lay clutches of for multiple males
and compete for males (Jocanas)
5.4.2 Co-operative= Two or more males cooperate to assist a
female at one nest (Acorn Woodpecker)
5.5 Polygyandry= 2+ females form
binds with 2+ males (Ostriches)
6 Motivation and Coping
6.1 Motivation= A reason or reasons for
acting or behaving in a particular way.
6.1.1 Primary= Usually goal orientated, usually
caused by a sensory stimuli (for survival)
6.1.2 Secondary= Can be learned, so elicits more
complex behaviour (not immediate for survival)
6.2 Coping= Implies having control of mental and bodily stability and prolonged
failure to cope results in failure to grow, reproduce and may lead to death.
6.2.1 Reactive= After the onset of stress.
Behavioural actions to cope.
Stereotypic and abnormal behaviour.
18.104.22.168 Stereotypic= Repetative and has no purpose (way of coping)
22.214.171.124 More externally motivated
126.96.36.199 React more strongly to environmental stimuli
188.8.131.52 Therefore are more flexible in their behaviour.
6.2.2 Proactive= Characterised by an automonous (independant) response. Try to
limit the severity and duration
184.108.40.206 More vulnerable to sterotypies. More intrinsically driven ie-
their behaviour is less guided by environmental stimuli but
more by internal mechanisms.
220.127.116.11 With repeated experience, proactive
animals easily develop rountines.
6.2.3 Tonic Immobility= Animal Freezes.
18.104.22.168 Avoidance= Fear aggrevated test used to evaluate learning
and memory in rodents of CUS disorders. Subjects learn to
avoid an environment with a adversive stimulus (foot shock)
22.214.171.124 Preference= Measure the motivational priorities in animals.
More than one choice is offered- clear view of what is
behaviourally/biologically important to the animals.
7.1.1 Increased vigilance,
Better use and defence
of limited resources,
Disease spread more
7.3 Dilution effect= When all look the same/sound the same
can spread out and confuse predator (Zebra)
7.4 Selfish her effect= While one animal is getting
eaten the rest can get away (Penguins)
7.5 Co-operative Hunting (Chimps)
126.96.36.199 Can get prey, you wouldn't
normally get (larger)
188.8.131.52 Have to share it.
7.6.1 Despotic= 1 individual animal
dominant, while other are
7.6.2 Linear= Each individual dominates all other below
him but not those above (Chickens)
184.108.40.206 Enhances reproductive success,
Increased access to food.
8 Optimality Theory= An idea of how an animal chooses
a specific behavioural choice that has minimum costs.
8.1 Cost and Benefits
8.2 3 Components
8.2.1 Assumption of the choices
of facing the animal
8.2.2 Assumption of the benefits/what can be
maximised (rate of energy gain)
8.2.3 Assumption of the constraints/limiting factors (distance, time)
8.3 Optimal behaviour= Maximising lifetime fitness,
Benefits outway costs. Increasing your ability to
reproduce and pass on genes.
9 Co-operative and Alturism
9.1 Co-operative behaviour= When an animal work with
another to achieve a mutual goal. Can be between same
or different species. (Monkeys grooming)
220.127.116.11 Increased Vigilance, Better
use of resources, Increased
18.104.22.168 Competition of resources,
Susceptibility to disease,
9.2 Alturism= Extreme co-operation (selfless)
9.2.2 Kin Selection= Alrturistic acts happen more
often in animals related. (Belding ground
9.2.3 Reciprocal Alturism= Recipients
repay alturistic behaviour in the
future. (Vampire Bats)
9.2.4 Eusociality= Do not reproduce instead they act as
helpers to parents (Bees, Ants, Naked mole Rats)
22.214.171.124 Overlap in generations, Co-operative brood,
Specialist casts of non-reproductive individuals.
9.3 Recipient + Actor Benefits= Co-operative, Actor
Harmed + Recipient Benefits= Alturistic,
Recipient Harmed + Actor Benefits= Selfish,
Actor + Recipient Harmed= Spiteful
10 Territorality= Term how animals use
space to communicate, ownership,
occupancy of space and posessions
10.1 Costs= Energy
of injury, Loss
Loss of mate
10.1.1 Weighing up costs= Distribution of resources in space,
Distribution of resources in time, Intruder pressure,
Environmental conditions will alter economic
defendability and therefore territory size.
10.2 Inruders: The winner of disputes about territories related to:
Size, State, The resources they are defending.
10.2.1 Sometimes lose: Might be a younger male, one who has
territory already is already often the biggest & the best
10.3 No Territory
10.3.1 Satellite= Orbit around a group of animals
the same species and share resources
10.3.1.1 Benefits= Females may be
attracted to larger groups of males
so satellites make up numbers.
Satellites may fend off intruders.
10.4 Why display with rivals?
10.4.1 Hotspot= Lekks occur where the chances
of females is high eg. daily routes
10.4.2 Hotshot= Subordinate males cluster
around attractive males to sneak
10.4.3 Female Preference= Like to
compare and make a choice.
11 Defence Strategies
11.1 3 Types: Hide, Run Away, Fight Back increasing
time cost <-> Increasing energy cost
11.1.1 Trade off between time and energy which
determines the tactic to choose at a specific time
11.2 Primary- Behaviours that reduce the probability of an individual being attacked by a
predator (Camouflage, Run away, Counter Shading) eg. Gazelle, Jungle Nymph
11.3 Secondary= Behaviours which lessen the chance that an attack will be
successful (Drop tail, Play dead) eg. Possum, Hawk Moth Caterpillar
11.4 Counter Shading= Belly is light in colouration, back is darker in colour (Penguin, Squirrel)
11.5 Disruptive Colouration=
11.6 Aposematism= Bright
colours (Toxic, Taste)
11.7 Mullerian Mimicry= Animals using the
same strategy of defence
11.8 Batesian Mimcry= Animal looks like another which is
dangerous (Milk Snake, Coral Snake)