GCSE AQA Physics 3 Medical Applications

Lilac Potato
Mind Map by Lilac Potato, updated more than 1 year ago
Lilac Potato
Created by Lilac Potato over 5 years ago
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Mind map showing information about x-rays, ultrasound and their uses.

Resource summary

GCSE AQA Physics 3 Medical Applications
  1. X-rays in medicine
    1. How do X-rays work?
      1. High frequency, short wavelength EM waves
        1. Transmitted by healthy tissue, absorbed by bones & metal
          1. Affect photographic film in same way as light
            1. Images can be formed electronically using charge-coupled devices (CCDs)
              1. Silicon chips that produce electronic signals - form high resolution images
        2. CT scans use X-rays
          1. Computerised axial tomography (CT) scans produce high resolution images of soft & hard tissue
            1. Beam fired through body from X-ray tube - picked up by detectors (rotated during scan)
              1. Forms image of 2D slice through body - put multiple scans together --> 3D image
              2. Treating cancer
                1. Cause ionisation - kill cancer cells
                  1. Radiographers wear lead aprons, stand behind lead screen or leave the room
              3. Ultrasound
                1. Higher frequency than upper limit of human hearing - 20000 Hz
                  1. Wave passes from one medium to another
                    1. Some reflected off boundary - partial reflection
                      1. Time it takes to reach detector - measure how far away boundary is
                    2. Oscilloscope traces: distance = speed x time
                      1. Then divide by 2
                      2. Uses
                        1. Breaking down kidney stones - turn hard masses into small particles
                          1. Pre-natal scanning of a fetus - waves reflected off fetus
                        2. Medical imaging
                          1. Safe?
                            1. Ultrasound: non-ionising - safe
                              1. X-rays: ionising - can cause cancer, not for babies
                                1. CT Scans: more ionising - should only use if really needed
                                2. Image quality?
                                  1. Ultrasound: fuzzy
                                    1. X-rays: clear images of bones & metal
                                      1. CT Scans: detailed, high resolution images - 3D
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